Click to enlargeIntroduction to Bluetooth<br>2nd Edition

Author: Mr. Lawrence Harte

Number of Pages: 112
Number of diagrams: 32
Copyright: 2008

Free Bluetooth Tutorial

This book provides a simplified description of Bluetooth technology, services, and profiles. You will find out how Bluetooth devices automatically locate nearby Bluetooth devices, authenticate them, discover their capabilities, and the processes that are used to setup connections with them.

Discover how Bluetooth’s spread spectrum technology allows it to operate with other devices operate including wireless LAN, microwave ovens, cordless telephones, wireless video cameras and how the Bluetooth specification now allows devices to adapt more....

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Sample Diagrams

There are 32 self explanatory diagrams in this book

Bluetooth Radio

This diagram shows the basic radio transmission process used in the Bluetooth system. This diagram shows that the frequency range of the Bluetooth system ranges from 2.4 GHz to 2.483 GHz and that the basic radio transmission packet time slot is 625 usec. It also shows that one device in a Bluetooth piconet is the master (controller) and other devices are slaves to the master. Each radio packet contains a local area piconet ID, device ID, and logical channel identifier. This diagram also shows that the hopping sequence is normally determined by the master's Bluetooth device address. However, when a device is not under control of the master, it does not know what hopping sequence to use to it listens for inquiries on a standard hopping sequence and then listens for pages using its own Bluetooth device address.

Bluetooth Sleep Mode

This figure shows the different types of sleep modes used in a Bluetooth system. This diagram shows that the master control the sleep modes of the devices within the Piconet. In this example, the master in the Piconet commands a PDA to one time sleep period (hold mode) for 500 msec. The master then commands the mouse in the Piconet to sleep periodically (sniff mode) for 50 msec. The master then commands the scanner to give up its active member address wait until 10 seconds before it will again communicate with the scanner.

Bluetooth Profiles

This figure shows how profiles are used to standardize how Bluetooth devices communicate with each other independent of who manufactured the device. This diagram shows that profile includes the required communication protocols, the service capabilities, and feature operation of the Bluetooth device. In this example, the Bluetooth profile also defines how the user can interact (features and optional features) with the device and how the device will display information to the user.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Bluetooth
Development Timeline
- Bluetooth 1.0
- Bluetooth 1.1
- Bluetooth 1.2
- Bluetooth 2.0
- Bluetooth 2.1
- Bluetooth 3.0 (Proposed Evolution)
Special Interest Group (SIG)

Market Growth

Bluetooth Basics
Temporary Small Networks (Piconets)
Device Discovery
Data Transmission Rates
Link Types

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS)
Adaptive Frequency Hopping
Service Discovery
Modulation Technologies
- Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying (GFSK)
- Pi/4 Differential Phase Shift Keying (Pi/4 DPSK)
- 8 Level Differential Phase Shift Keying (8-DPSK)

Bluetooth Operation
Discovering Other Bluetooth Devices
- Inquiry Scan
- Name Discovery
Bonding (Pairing) with Other Bluetooth Devices
Connecting with Other Bluetooth Devices
- Page Scan
- Active Member Address (AM_ADDR)
- Logical Channel Establishment
- Channel Identifier (CID)
- Protocol Service Multiplexing (PSM)
Bluetooth Clock
Clock Offset
Hopping Rate
Rapid Signal Acquisition
Bluetooth Sleep Modes
- Hold Mode
- Sniff Mode
- Subrate Sniffing
- Park Mode (Parking)
Quality of Service (QoS)

Protocol Layers
Baseband RF
Link Manager
- Asynchronous Connectionless (ACL)
- Synchronous Connection Oriented (SCO)
- Stream Link
Host Controller Interface (HCI)
Logical Link Control and Adaptation (L2CA)
- Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP)
Serial Communication
- Radio Frequency Communication (RFComm)
Object Exchange
- Object Exchange Protocol (OBEX)
Telephony Control
- Telephony Control Protocol Specification (TCS)
Service Discovery

Bluetooth Protocols
Application Protocols
Service Discovery Protocol (SDP)
Audio Visual Control Transport Protocol (AVCTP)
Audio Visual Distribution Transport Protocol (AVDTP)
Bluetooth Network Encapsulation Protocol (BNEP)

Usage Model
Generic Access Profile (GAP)
Advanced Audio Distribution Profile (A2DP)
Audio Video Remote Control Profile (AVRCP)
Basic Imaging Profile (BIP)
Basic Printing Profile (BPP)
Hard Copy Cable Replacement Profile (HCRP)
Common ISDN Access Profile (CIP)
Cordless Telephony Profile (CTP)
Device ID Profile (DI)
Dial-up Networking Profile (DUN)
Extended Service Discovery Profile (ESDP)
Fax Profile
File Transfer Profile
General Audio Visual Distribution Profile (GAVDP)
General Object Exchange Profile (GOEP)
Hands Free Profile (HFP)
Headset Profile
Human Interface Device (HID)
Intercom Profile (ICP)
Object Push Profile (OPP)
Personal Area Networking Profile (PAN)
Phone Book Access Profile (PBAP)
SIM Access Profile (SAP)
Service Discovery Application Profile (SDAP)
Serial Port Profile (SPP)
Synchronization Profile (SYNCH)
Video Distribution Profile (VDP)

Security Threats
- Man in the Middle (MITM)
- Eavesdropping
- Bluesnarfing
- Bluejacking
- Bluebugging
- Bluetooth Sniping
- Passkey
- Link Key
- Authentication
- Trusted Device
Simple Pairing
- Public Key Exchange
- Numeric Comparison
- Just Works
- Out of Band (OOB)
- Passkey Entry
- Encryption Key
Access Control

Bluetooth Acronyms - Appendix 1

8DPSK - 8 Level Differential Phase Shift Keying
A2DP - Advanced Audio Distribution Profile
ACL - Asynchronous Connectionless
ACL - C - Asynchronous Connectionless Control
ACL - U - Asynchronous Connectionless User
Ad - Hoc) Network - Ad Hoc
AFH - Adaptive Frequency Hopping
Alternate MAC - Alternative Medium Access Control
AP - Access Point
APC - Adaptive Power Control
API - Application Program Interface
ASB - Active Slave Broadcast
AVCTP - Audio Visual Control Transport Protocol
AVDTP - Audio Video Distribution Transport Protocol
AVDTP - Audio Visual Distribution Transport Protocol
AVRCP - Audio Video Remote Control Profile
BB - Baseband
BD_ADDR - Bluetooth Device Address
BER - Bit Error Rate
BIP - Basic Imaging Profile
Bluetooth SIG - Bluetooth Special Interest Group
BNEP - Bluetooth Network Encapsulation Protocol
BPP - Basic Printing Profile
BQB - Bluetooth Qualification Body
BQRB - Bluetooth Qualification Review Board
BQTF - Bluetooth Qualification Test Facility
BR - Basic Rate
CC - Call Control
CID - Channel Identifier
CID - Connection Identifier
CIP - Common ISDN Profile
CL - Connectionless
CMTP - CAPI Message Transport Protocol
CoD - Class Of Device
CTP - Cordless Telephony Profile
DAC - Device Access Code
Default ACL - Default Asynchronous Connectionless Link
DEVM - Differential Error Vector Magnitude
DI - Device ID Profile
DPSK - Differential Phase Shift Keying
DT - Data Terminal
DTE - Data Terminal Equipment
DTMF - Dual Tone Multi - Frequency
DUN - Dial - up Networking Profile
DUT - Device Under Test
ECDH - Elliptic Curve Diffie - Hellman
EDR - Enhanced Data Rate
eSCO - Extended Synchronous Connection Oriented
eSCO - S - Extended Synchronous Connection Oriented S
ESDP - Extended Services Discover Profile
FAX - Fax Profile
FCC - Federal Communications Commission
FEC - Forward Error Correction
FEC - Frame Error Check
FH - Frequency Hopping
FHS - Frequency Hopping Sequence
FHS Packet - Frequency Hopping Synchronization Packet
FHSS - Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum
FIFO - First - In - First - Out
FSK - Frequency Shift Keying
FTP - File Transfer Profile
FW - Firmware
GAP - Generic Access Profile
GAVDP - General Audio Video Distribution Profile
GFSK - Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying
GIAC - General Inquiry Access Code
GM - Group Management
GOEP - General Object Exchange Profile
GOEP - Generic Object Exchange Profile
GW - Gateway
HCI - Host Command Interface
HCI - Host Controller Interface
HCRP - Hard copy Cable Replacement Profile
HEC - Header Error Check
HFP - Hands Free Profile
HID - Human Interface Devices
HID Protocol - Human Interface Device Protocol
Hop Rate - Hopping Rate
HS - Headset
HW - Hardware
IC - ISDN Client
ICP - Intercom Profile
IEEE - Institute Of Electrical And Electronics Engineers
IETF - Internet Engineering Task Force
Inquiry - Inquiring
IP - Internet Protocol
IrDA - Infrared Data Association
ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network
ISM - Instrument, Scientific and Medical Band
ISOC - Isochronous
IUT - Implementation Under Test
L_CH - Logical Channel
L2CAP - Logical Link Control And Adaptation Protocol
LAN - Local Area Network
LC - Link Control
LIAC - Limited Inquiry Access Code
LLID - Logical Link Identifier
LM - Link Manager
LMP - Link Manager Protocol
LocDev - Local Device
LSB - Least Significant Bit
LT_ADDR - Logical Transport Address
MAC - Medium Access Control
MAPI - Messaging Application Programming Interface
MB - OFDM - Multi - Band Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
MITM - Man in the Middle
MM - Mobility Management
MMI - Man Machine Interface
MS - Mobile Station
MSB - Most Significant Bit
NFC - Near Field Communication
NFC Cooperation - Near Field Communication Cooperation
OBEX - Object Exchange
OOB - Out of Band
OOB - I - Out of Band Input Only
OOB - IO - Out of Band Input and Output
OOB - O - Out of Band Output Only
OPP - Object Push Profile
PAN - Personal Area Network Profile
PANU - Personal Area Network User
PBAP - Phone Book Access Profile
PC - Personal Computer
PCMCIA - Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
PDA - Personal Digital Assistant
PDU - Protocol Data Unit
PHY - Physical Layer
Piconet ID - Piconet Identifier
PIM - Personal Information Manager
PIN - Personal Identification Number
PMP - Participant in Multiple Piconets
PN - Pseudo - Random Noise
PnP - Plug And Play
POTS - Plain Old Telephone Service
PPP - Point - To - Point Protocol
PRBS - Pseudo Random Binary Sequence
PRD - Program Reference Document
PSB - Parked Slave Broadcast
PSTN - Public Switched Telephone Network
QoS - Quality Of Service
QoS Setting - Quality of Service Setting
RAND - Random Number
RemDev - Remote Device
RF - Radio Frequency
RFC - Request For Comments
RFCOMM - Radio Frequency Communication Protocol
RFI - Radio Frequency Interference
RFID - Radio Frequency Identification Tag
RX - Receiver
S - Slave
SAP - SIM Access Profile
SAR - Segmentation And Reassembly
SCO - Synchronous Connection Oriented
SD - Service Discovery
SDAP - Service Discovery Application Profile
SDP - Service Discovery Protocol
SDS - Service Discovery and Selection
SDU - Service Data Unit
SeP - Serial Port
SIG - Special Interest Group
SLP - Service Layer Protocol
SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SPP - Serial Port Profile
SRES - Signed Response
SrvDscApp - Service Discovery Application
SS - Supplementary Services
SW - Software
SYNCH - Synchronization Profile
TCI - Test Control Interface
TCP - Telephony Control Protocol
TCS - Telephony Control protocol Specification
TDD - Time Division Duplex
UART - Universal Asynchronous Receiver And Transmitter
UDP - User Datagram Protocol
UI - User Interface
UPF - Unplugfest
UPnP - Universal Plug and Play
USB - Universal Serial Bus
UUID - Universally Unique Identifier
UWB - Ultra Wideband
VDP - Video Distribution Profile
WAP - Wireless Application Protocol
WAPB - WAP Bearer Profile
WLAN - Wireless Local Area Network
WPAN - Wireless Personal Area Network
WUG - Wireless User Group

About the Author

Mr. Lawrence Harte is the managing director of Althos, an expert information provider covering the communications industry. He has over 29 years of technology analysis, development, implementation, and business management experience. Mr. Harte has worked for leading companies including Ericsson/General Electric, Audiovox/Toshiba and Westinghouse and consulted for hundreds of other companies. Mr. Harte continually researches, analyzes, and tests new communication technologies, applications, and services. He has authored over 30 books on telecommunications technologies on topics including Wireless Mobile, Data Communications, VoIP, Broadband, Prepaid Services, and Communications Billing. Mr. Harte’s holds many degrees and certificates include an Executive MBA from Wake Forest University (1995) and a BSET from the University of the State of New York, (1990). Mr. Harte can be contacted at


This book explains provides a simplified description of Bluetooth technology, services, and profiles. You will find out how Bluetooth devices automatically locate nearby Bluetooth devices, authenticate them, discover their capabilities, and the processes that are used to setup connections with them.

Discover how Bluetooth’s spread spectrum technology allows it to operate with other devices operate including wireless LAN, microwave ovens, cordless telephones, wireless video cameras and how the Bluetooth specification now allows devices to adapt their frequency transmission to avoid interfering with these devices. You will learn about the discovery (inquiry) phase and the connection (paging) process that devices use to find and connect to other devices.

The modulation types and packet structures are explained along with how the use of multislot RF packets can dramatically increase the data throughput between devices. Learn how enhanced data rate (EDR) can increase data transmission rate from 1 Mbps to 3 Mbps. The protocol layers are explained including the RF baseband (physical), link manager, L2CAP (transport), and upper session and application layers.

You will learn about the many Bluetooth profiles that define the services and applications that Bluetooth can provide. Bluetooth security processes such as pairing (authentication) and privacy (encryption) and how the new simple pairing process is described.

Discover that Bluetooth has evolved and continues to evolve from basic 1 Mbps Piconet services to the proposed Bluetooth 480 Mbps UWB services. Some of the most important topics featured in this book are: • Bluetooth Piconets
• Data Rates and Link Types
• Device Discover and Connection
• Bluetooth Marketplace
• Profiles and Why they are Important
• Enhanced Data Rate
• Interference Avoidance
• Improved Security and Simple Pairing
• Rapid Signal Acquisition
• Bluetooth Evolution

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