Click to enlargeIntroduction to <br>Data Multicasting<a name="top">

Author: Lawrence Harte
ISBN: 1-932813-55-1
Page Size: 7.5" x 9.25" soft cover book
Copyright: 2008

Number of Pages: 84
Number of Diagrams: 22

Printed or Electronic Version (2.3MB) Available
- Electronic Version has Color Diagrams


This book explains how to send IP data packets from one source to multiple receivers. You will discover how multicasting (one-to-many or many-to-many) can dramatically increase the efficiency of a network compared to unicasting (one-to-one) or broadcasting (one-to-all) transmission.

Multicasting is critical for mass media streaming sources such as IP television and Internet radio. Without the use of multicasting, a 3 Mbps television streaming service would require data connections of 30 Gbps to provide service to 10,000 customers.

This book explains the fundamentals of how multicasting systems operate including how members find, join and disconnect from multicast sessions. You will learn about addressing along with multicast member and group management. Explained are some of the ways that multicast systems can provide varying levels of quality of service for different multicast members.

There are many types of multicast protocols to choose from and you will learn how the characteristics vary between the protocols such latency, scalability and protocol overhead. The multicast protocols explained in this book include IGMP, PIM-DM, PIM-SM, MOSPF, CBT and BGMP.

Multicast security methods are covered that can be used to ensure only authorized members may attach and decode multicast media. An introduction to emerging gridcasting and peercasting processes is included. Some of the most important topics featured are:

Multicast Applications and Operation
Dense and Sparse Mode Multicasting
Intra-Domain and Inter-Domain Multicasting
Bandwidth Control
Multicast Quality of Service
Multicast Security
Member Addressing and Group Management
Multicast Protocols IGMP, PIM-SM, PIM-DM, MOSPF, CBT, and BGMP
Multicasting in Ethernet Networks
Gridcasting and Peercasting

Sample Diagrams

There are 22 explanatory diagrams in this book

IP Television Multicast Distribution

This figure shows how an IP television system can distribute information through a switched telephone network. This example shows that end users who are watching a movie that is initially supplied by media center that is located some distance and several switches away from end users (movie watchers). When the first movie watcher requests the movie, it is requested from the telephone end office. The telephone end office determines that the movie is not available in its video storage system and the end office switch requests the movie from the interconnection switch. The interconnection switch also determines the movie is not available in its video storage system and the movie is requested from the distant media source. When the movie is transferred from the media center to the end customer, the interconnecting switches may make a copy for future distribution to other users. This program distribution process reduces the interconnection requirements between the switching distribution systems.

Multicast Single Source

This diagram shows how a single source multicast data session to allow a single source to send the same information to multiple receivers without the need to repeat the transmission back through multiple switches and routers in the network. This example shows that an IP address source is combined with a single multicast address that allows each router in the multicast tree to forward the packets only to members of the group.

Multicast Shared Source

This diagram shows how a shared source multicast data session to allow multiple sources to send the information to multiple receivers through the user of a reference address (rendezvous point). In this example, the data from each source is sent to the rendezvous point (RP) which then distributes the information through a tree structure to the multicast group recipients. This diagram shows that there is the potential for some duplicate transmission in the shared source multicast session as the source and destination may be sent in different directions through the same routers.

Table of Contents

Data Multicasting

Multicast Applications
-Content Distribution
-Shared Applications
-Information Distribution
-Network Configuration

Multipoint Distribution

Data Routing
-Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4)
-Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)
-Distance Vector Routing
-Link State Routing

Multicast Operation
-Multicast Session
-Sparse Mode Multicasting
-Dense Mode Multicasting
-Group Management
-Multicast Scoping
-Distribution Trees
-Tree Building
-Core Based Trees (CBT)
-Join Styles
-Multicast Routing Table
-Multicast Forwarding
-Ethernet Multicasting
-Bandwidth Reservation

Multicast Protocols
-Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)
-Protocol Independent Multicasting (PIM)
-Border Gateway Multicast Protocol (BGMP)
-Multicast Listener Discover (MLD)
-Broadcast Media Distribution Protocol (BMDP)
-Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (DVMRP)
-Multicast Extension to Open Shortest Path First (MOSPF) 38
-Source Specific Multicast (SSM)
-Any Source Multicast (ASM)
-Source Filtering Group Membership Protocol (SGMP)
-Cisco Group Management Protocol (CGMP)
-Negative-Acknowledgment (NACK) Oriented Reliable
- Multicast (NORM)
-Multicast Transport Protocol (MTP)
-Router-Port Group Management Protocol (RGMP)
-Pragmatic General Multicast (PGM)

Interdomain Multicast Protocols
-Multiprotocol Border Gateway Protocol (MBGP)
-Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP)
-Anycast RP
-Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD)
-Truncated Reverse Path Broadcasting (TRPB)

Multicast Session Management
-Session Description
-Session Announcement
-Session Initiation
-Session Control

Multicast Security
-Identity Verification
-Reliable Multicast Transport Protocol (RMTP)
-Tree-Based Multicast Transport Protocol (TMTP)
-Express Transport Protocol (XTP)

Reliable Multicast Transport (RMT)
-Reliability Mechanism
-Congestion Control
-Feedback Control
-Flow Control
-Late Join
-Multiple Passes
-Asynchronous Layered Coding (ALC)
-Scalable Reliable Multicast (SRM)

Multicast Quality of Service (QoS)
-Bandwidth Allocation
-Path Precedence
-Resource Reservation
-Service Classes
-Congestion Control
-Admission Control

-Bit Torrent

Internet2 Network
-Multicast Backbone (MBone)

Data Multicasting Constraints
-Router Processing
-Router Memory
-Multicast Setup Time
-Protocol Overhead
-Transmission and Control Delays
-Media Heterogeneity
-Group Management
-Quality of Service
-Late Entry

References and Resources

Data Multicasting Acronyms-Appendix 1

ABR - Area Border Router
Ack Implosion - Acknowledgement Implosion
AFDP - Adaptive File Distribution Protocol
ALF - Application Layer Framing
ARP - Address Resolution Protocol
AS - Autonomous System
ASBR - Autonomous System Boundary Router
ASM - Any Source Multicast
BCMCS - Broadcast and Multicast Services
BE - Best Effort Service
BGMP - Border Gateway Multicast Protocol
Bidir-PIM - Bidirectional Protocol Independent Multicasting
BMC - Broadcast/Multicast Control Protocol
BMDP - Broadcast Media Distribution Protocol
BMSC - Broadcast Multicast Service Center
BR - Border Router
CAM - Content Addressable Memory
CBQ - Class Based Queuing
CBT - Core Based Trees
CGMP - Cisco Group Management Protocol
CID - Conference Identifier
COS - Class Of Service
DCP - Dynamic Configuration Protocol
DVB-Data - Digital Video Broadcasting Data
DVMRP - Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol
EBCMCS - Enhanced Broadcast and Multicast Services
eBGP - External Border Gateway Protocol
EGP - Exterior Gateway Protocol
EIGRP - Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
ERP - Exterior Routing Protocol
FC - Feedback Control
GM - Group Management
GMP - Group Membership Protocol
Gridcasting - Grid Casting
HDVMRP - Hierarchical Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol
HPIM - Hierarchical Protocol Independent Multicast
iBGP - Internal Border Gateway Protocol
ICMP - Internet Control Message Protocol
IGMP - Internet Group Management Protocol
IGMP Snooping - Internet Group Management Protocol Snooping
IGMPv1 - Internet Group Management Protocol Version 1
IGMPv2 - Internet Group Management Protocol Version 2
IGMPv3 - Internet Group Management Protocol Version 3
IGP - Interior Gateway Protocol
IGRP - Interior Gateway Routing Protocol
InPort - Input Port
Intserv - Integrated Services
IP Address - Internet Protocol Address
IP Subnet - Internet Protocol Subnetwork
IPv6 - Internet Protocol Version 6
IPVBI - IP Multicast over VBI
IPX - Internetwork Packet Exchange
IR Routing - Infrared Routing
Keepalive - Keep Alive Message
LBRM - Log Based Receiver Reliable Multicast
LDP - Label Distribution Protocol
LGM - Leave Group Message
LGMP - Local Group Multicast Protocol
LSA - Link State Advertisement
LSP - Label Switched Path
LSR - Label Switched Router
M - Merging Point
M2M - Many to Many
MAAP - Multicast Address Allocation Protocol
MARS - Multicast Address Resolution Server
MBGP - Multicast Border Gateway Protocol
M-BGP - Multicast Border Gateway Protocol
MBMS - Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services
MBONE - Multicast Backbone
MBR - Multicast Border Router
MCP - Multicast Control Protocol
MCU - Multipoint Control Unit
MFC - Multicast Forwarding Cache
MFTP - Multicast File Transfer Protocol
MGM - Multicast Group Manager
M-IGP - Multicast Interior Gateway Protocol
MLD - Multicast Listener Discovery
MOSPF - Multicast Extensions to Open Shortest Path First
MPE - Multiprotocol Encapsulation
MPLS - Multi-Protocol Label Switching
M-RIB - Multicast Routing Information Base
MRouter - Multicast Router
MSDP - Multicast Source Discovery Protocol
MTFTP - Multicast Trivial File Transfer Protocol
MTP - Multicast Transport Protocol
MTP-2 - Multicast Transport Protocol Version 2
Multicast CIDs - Multicast Polling Connection Identifiers
NACK - Negative-Acknowledgment
NACK Implosion - Negative Acknowledgement Implosion
NTP - Network Time Protocol
Outport - Output Port
PGM - Pragmatic General Multicast
Piggyback - Piggy-back
PIM - Protocol Independent Multicast
PIM-DM - Protocol Independent Mulitcast-Dense Mode
PIM-SM - Protocol Independent Multicasting-Sparse Mode
PKE - Public Key Encryption
PNAP - Private Network Access Point
PR-Bit - Poison Reverse Bit
QoS - Quality Of Service
QoS Awareness - Quality of Service Awareness
RAMP - Reliable Adaptive Multicast Protocol
RARP - Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
RBP - Reliable Broadcast Protocol
RGMP - Router-Port Group Management Protocol
RIP - Routing Information Protocol
RMF - Reliable Multicast Framework
RMFP - Reliable Multicast Framing Protocol
RMP - Reliable Multicast Protocol
RMT - Reliable Multicast Transport
RMTP - Reliable Multicast Transport Protocol
RP - Rendezvous Point
RPB - Reverse Path Broadcasting
RPF - Reverse Path Forwarding
RPM - Reverse Path Multicasting
RSVP - Resource Reservation Protocol
RTCP - Real-Time Transport Control Protocol
RTP - Reliable Transport Protocol
RTSP - Real Time Streaming Protocol
S,G - Source and Group Pair
SA - Security Association
SA - Source Active
SAP - Session Announcement Protocol
SCCP - Session Conference Control Protocol
SCE - Single Connector Emulation
SCP - Session Control Protocol
SDES - Source Description Packet
SDP - Session Description Protocol
SGMP - Source Filtering Group Membership Protocol
SIP - Session Initiation Protocol
SLP - Service Location Protocol
SNA - System Network Architecture
SPT - Shortest Path Tree
SPT Bit - Shortest Path Tree Bit
SRM - Scalable Reliable Multicast
SSM - Single Source Multicast
SSM - Single Source Multicasting
SSM - Source Specific Multicast
ST-II - Stream Protocol Version II
Subnet - Sub Network
TMTP - Tree-Based Multicast Transport Protocol
TP0 - Transport Protocol Class 0
TP1 - Transport Protocol Class 1
TP2 - Transport Protocol Class 2
TP3 - Transport Protocol Class 3
TP4 - Transport Protocol Class 4
TRBP - Truncated Reverse Path Broadcasting
TRPB - Truncated Reverse Path Broadcasting
TTL - Time To Live
TTL Scoping - Time to Live Scoping
U-RIB - Unicast Routing Information Base
VC - Virtual Circuit
XTP - Xpress Transport Protocol

About the Author

Mr. Lawrence Harte is the president of Althos, an expert information provider whom researches, trains, and publishes on technology and business industries. He has over 29 years of technology analysis, development, implementation, and business management experience. Mr. Harte has worked for leading companies including Ericsson/General Electric, Audiovox/Toshiba and Westinghouse and has consulted for hundreds of other companies. Mr. Harte continually researches, analyzes, and tests new communication technologies, applications, and services. As of 2008, he has authored over 100 books on telecommunications technologies and business systems covering topics such as mobile telephone systems, data communications, voice over data networks, broadband, prepaid services, billing systems, sales, and Internet marketing. Mr. Harte holds many degrees and certificates including an Executive MBA from Wake Forest University (1995) and a BSET from the University of the State of New York, (1990).

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