Click to enlargeGlobal Positioning System<br>(GPS) 3rd edition

Authors: Lawrence Harte, Ben Levitan
ISBN: 9781932813197
Page Size: 7.5" x 9.25" soft cover book
Copyright: 2016

Number of Pages: 116
Number of Diagrams: 24

Printed or Electronic Version (2.3MB) Available - Electronic Version has Color Diagrams


This book explains satellite position location technology and how the GPS system has evolved. You will learn the functional parts of GPS systems and how they work together to provide position measurements that are accurate to within centimeters.

Related Books

The operation of GPS is described including satellite acquisition, signal reception and pseudo-ranging. Discover how time reference and error correction data is used and why it is very important to provide precise satellite positioning. Global positioning system is a navigation system that uses satellites to act as reference points for the calculation of position location. You will learn how GPS devices can use other systems or devices to provide location services when there is a temporary loss of a satellite links.

Explained are the multiple types of civilian and military codes used in the GPS system and how they provide different levels of accuracy and reliability. GPS radio technology is described including the frequencies GPS uses, modulation and power levels.

You will learn about the many applications that use GPS technology including mapping, location monitoring, agriculture control, navigation, navigation warfare (NAVWAR), surveying and structural deformation monitoring. Learn how GPS is used in combination with other position detection systems such as laser ranging to provide 3 dimensional charts and maps.

The sources of GPS errors are explained such as orbital position errors and variation in radio propagation. You will learn ways to minimize the errors such as receiver initialization, RTK and differential GPS (D-GPS). A brief description if the interface and data format standards is provided.

Discover the upcoming changes to GPS including a new frequency with new PRN codes. Some of the important topics covered in this book include:

• Descriptions of the Functional Parts of the GPS System
• How the GPS System Works
• Key GPS Applications
• GPS Signal Availability and Reception
• GPS Radio Technology
• GPS Codes, their Accuracy and Uses
• GPS Data Formats
• Sources of GPS Errors and ways to Correct Them
• Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS
• Differential GPS (DGPS)
• Terrestrial Based Positioning Systems
• Upcoming Changes to GPS

Sample Diagrams

There are 24 explanatory diagrams in this book

GPS Operation

This figure shows a global positioning satellite (GPS) system. This diagram shows how a GPS receiver receives and compares the signals from orbiting GPS satellites to determine its geographic position. Using the precise timing signal based on a very accurate clock, the GPS receiver compares these signals from 3 or 4 satellites. Each satellite transmits its exact location along with a timed reference signal. The GPS receiver can use these signals to determine its distance from each of the satellites. Once the position and distance of each satellite is known, the GPS receiver can calculate the position where all these distances cross at the same point. This is the location. This information can be displayed in latitude and longitude form or a computer device can use this information to display the position on a map on a computer display.

Propagation Time Measurement

This figure shows how propagation time from a satellite is calculated in a GPS system. This diagram shows that a GPS satellite sends a unique coded message at a specific time. The GPS receiver continuously looks for the unique satellite code and when it matches, it notes the time difference between when the message was sent compared to its internal clock of the GPS receiver. This difference of time is the propagation time.

GPS Mobile Location

This figure shows how mobile communication systems can be enhanced through the use of GPS technology to provide for emergency location services. This example shows that a mobile telephone has both mobile communication and GPS reception capability. When the user needs emergency assistance, the GPS information can be sent to the public safety access point to allow the direction of emergency services to the location where the user's mobile telephone is located.

Table of Contents

Global Positioning System (GPS)

GPS Applications

Utility Maps
Geographical Information System (GIS)
Airborne Mapping
Seafloor Mapping
3 Dimensional Mapping
-Location Monitoring
Fleet Management
Workforce Location Tracking
Emergency Location Services
Automated Vehicle Location (AVL)
Asset Tracking
-Agriculture Control
Precision Farming
Marine Navigation
Air Navigation
Vehicle Navigation
Personal Navigation
Automated Machine Guidance
-Navigation Warfare (NAVWAR)
Cadastral Surveying
Seismic Surveying
Volume Surveying
-Structure Deformation Monitoring

GPS Signal Availability

-Satellite Visibility
-Satellite Health

GPS System Operation

-Satellite Constellation
-Satellite Acquisition
Satellite Almanac
-Satellite Tracking
-Propagation Time Measurement
Carrier Phase Measurement
-Broadcast Ephemeris
-Distance Calculation
-Standard Positioning Service (SPS)
-Precise Positioning Service (PPS)
-Receiver Initialization
-Relative Positioning
GPS Base Station
Rover Station
-Real Time Kinematic GPS (RTK GPS)
GPS Base Repeaters
-Differential Global Positioning Service (DGPS)
-Post Processing (Postprocessing)
Post Processed Kinematic (PPK)

GPS Receiver

-Single Frequency GPS Receiver
-Dual Frequency Receiver
-GPS Interfaces

Assisted GPS

-Acquisition Assistance
-Computational Assistance

GPS Satellites

-Power System
-Attitude Control System (ACS)
-Communication Equipment
Satellite Clocks
-Block I Satellites
-Block II and IIA Satellites
-Block IIR Satellites
-Block IIF Satellites

GPS Satellite Orbits

-Kepler’s First Law of Planetary Motion
-Kepler’s Second Law of Planetary Motion
-Kepler’s Third Law of Planetary Motion
-Satellite Perturbing Forces
-GPS Pseudolites

GPS Operational Control Segment (OCS)

-Master Control Station (MCS)
-Monitor Stations

GPS Radio

L1 Carrier
L2 Carrier
L5 Carrier
-Pseudo-random noise (PRN) Codes
Clear Acquisition Code (C/A Code)
Precise Code (P-Code)
Anti-Spoofing Code (Y-Code)
Military Code (M-Code)

GPS Time

-GPS System Time
-Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)
-Universal Time 1 (UT1)
-International Atomic Time (TAI)

GPS Data Formats

-Receiver Independent Exchange Format (RINEX)
-Compact Receiver Independent Exchange Format (CRINEX)
-Standard Product 3 (SP3)
-Ionospheric Map Exchange Format (IONEX)
-Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Service (RTCM)
-National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association 0183 (NEMA-0183)

GPS Errors

-Atmospheric Conditions
Ionospheric Delay
-Ephemeris Errors
-Timing Errors
-Clock Drift
-Receiver Clock Offset
-Satellite Geometry
Time Dilution of Precision (TDOP)
Vertical Dilution of Precision (VDOP)
Horizontal Dilution of Precision (HDOP)
Position Dilution of Precision (PDOP)
Geometric Dilution of Precision (GDOP)
-Pseudorange Corrections (PRC)
-Residual Errors
-Triple Difference GPS
-Selective Availability (SA)
Antenna Swapping

Augmentation Systems

-Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS)
WAAS Reference Station (WRS)
-European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System (EGNOS)
-International GNSS Services (IGS)
-GPS and GEO Augmented Navigation System (GAGAN)
-Enhanced Location Method
-Wide Area Differential GPS (WADGPS)

Other Satellite Navigation Systems

-Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS)
-Galileo System
-Beidou Satellite Navigation System

Terrestrial Positioning Systems

-Long Range Aid to Navigation (LORAN)
Differential Long Range Navigation (Differential LORAN)
Enhanced Long Range Navigation (eLORAN)
-Dead Reckoning
-Inertial Navigation System (INS)
Vibration Gyroscope



GPS Acronyms - Appendix 1

3D Mapping - 3 Dimensional Mapping
ACS - Attitude Control System
A - GPS - Assisted Global Positioning System
AOA - Angle of Arrival
AS - Antispoofing
ASF - Additional Secondary Phase Factor
Autonav - Autonomous Navigation
AVL - Automatic Vehicle Location
C/A Code - Clear/Acquisition Code
CCR - Corner Cube Reflector
CDP - Cisco Discovery Protocol
CRINEX - Compact Receiver Independent Exchange Format
CS - Commercial Service
DGPS - Differential Global Positioning Service
DGPS - Differential GPS
Differential LORAN - Differential Long Range Navigation
DOP - Dilution of Precision
DR - Dead Reckoning
EGNOS - European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System
eLORAN - Enhanced Long Range Navigation
EMP - Electromagnetic Pulse
EOF - End Of File
ERR - Error Value
FOC - Full Operational Capability
GAGAN - GPS and GEO Augmented Navigation System
GDOP - Geometric Dilution of Precision
GEO - Geosynchronous Earth Orbit
GeoFencing - Geographic Fencing
GFE - Government Furnished Equipment
GIS - Geographic Information System
GIS - Geographical Information System
Glonass - Global Navigation Satellite System
GNSS - Global Navigation Satellite Systems
GPS - Global Positioning System
GRI - Group Repetition Interval
HDOP - Horizontal Dilution of Precision
HOW - Handover Word
IGS - International GNSS Services
IGSO - Inclined Geosynchronous Earth Orbit
IMU - Inertial Measurement Unit
INS - Inertial Navigation System
IOC - Initial Operational Capability
IODC - Issue of Data Clock
IODE - Issue of Data Ephemeris
IONEX - Ionospheric Map Exchange Format
JD - Julian Day
L2 CL - L2 Civil Long
L2 CM - L2 Civil Moderate
LBS - Location Based Services
LEO - Low Earth Orbit
LIDAR - Light Detection and Ranging
LOP - Line of Position
LORAN - Long Range Navigation
LORAN - C - Long Range Navigation C
LPDE - Local Position Determining Entity
LRF - Laser Range Finder
MCS - Master Control Station
MEO - Medium Earth Orbit
MPC - Mobile Position Center
MTSAT - Multifunction Transportation Satellite System
NAVSTAR - Navigation Satellite Timing and Ranging
NAVWAR - Navigation Warfare
NDGPS - Nationwide Differential Global Positioning Service
NDS - National Defense Strategy
NEMA - 0183 - National Electrical Manufacturer's Association 0183
OS - Open Service
OTF - On the Fly
OTS - Onboard Time Scale
P - Code - Precise Code
PDE - Position Determining Entity
PDOP - Position Dilution of Precision
PDOP - Positional Dilution of Precision
PDT - Position Determination Technology
PF - Primary Phase Factor
PLS - Position Location System
Postprocessing - Post Processing
PPK - Post Processed Kinematic
PPP - Precise Point Positioning
PPS - Precise Positioning Service
PR - Pseudo - Range
PRC - Pseudorange Corrections
PRN - Pseudorandom Noise Number
Pseudolites - Pseudo - Satellite
PVT - Position Velocity Time
Radar - Radio Detection And Ranging
RINEX - Receiver Independent Exchange Format
RRC - Rate of Change of Pseudorange Corrections
RTCA - Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics
RTCM - Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Service
RTK - Real Time Kinematic
SA - Selective Availability
SAO - Satellite Antenna Offset
SBAS - Satellite Based Augmentation System
SF - Secondary Phase Factor
SINEX - Station Position and Velocity Solutions
SODAR - Sonic Detection and Ranging
SOG - Speed Over Ground
Solar Hour - Sidereal Hour
SONAR - Sound Navigation and Ranging
SP3 - Standard Product 3
SPS - Standard Positioning Service
STS - System Time Scale
SV - Satellite Vehicle
SVN - Space Vehicle Number
TAI - International Atomic Time
TDOA - Time Difference of Arrival
TDOP - Time Dilution of Precision
TEC - Total Electron Content
TOE - Time of Emission
TSF - Time Stamped Frame
TTC - Telemetry Tracking & Control
TTFF - Time to First Fix
UERE - User Equivalent Range Error
UT1 - Universal Time 1
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VDOP - Vertical Dilution of Precision
WAAS - Wide Area Augmentation System
WADGPS - Wide Area Differential GPS
WRS - WAAS Reference Station

About the Authors

Mr. Harte is the president of Althos, an expert information provider covering the communications industry. He has over 29 years of technology analysis, development, implementation, and business management experience. Mr. Harte has worked for leading companies including Ericsson/General Electric, Audiovox/Toshiba and Westinghouse and has consulted for hundreds of other companies. Mr. Harte continually researches, analyzes, and tests new communication technologies, applications, and services. He has authored over 80 books on telecommunications technologies on topics including Wireless Mobile, Data Communications, VoIP, Broadband, Prepaid Services, and Communications Billing. Mr. Harte holds many degrees and certificates including an Executive MBA from Wake Forest University (1995) and a BSET from the University of the State of New York, (1990). Mr. Harte can be contacted at

Mr. Ben Levitan is an engineer and an expert on new and developing wireless standards for Satellite, Cellular and land mobile radio (LMR) Systems including ANSI-41, GSM, and 3rd Generation systems. Mr. Levitan is an active participant for the US and international development of ANSI-41, GSM, 802.11, All-IP (3G Standards), Interstandard Roaming and FCC and US Government mandated features and requirements. Mr. Levitan has represented COMSAT, Intelsat and Aeronautical Radio, Inc. in the development of satellite standards and was a member of the United States Delegations to the United Nation's International Telecommunications Union conferences for worldwide standardization of telecommunications for eight years. Mr. Levitan has consulted and is an expert witness for several major wireless companies. Mr. Levitan's expertise includes international roaming for cellular systems and government and FCC mandated features such as the new required Wiretap standards (CALEA), Local Number Portability and 911 emergency standards for the cellular industry. Mr. Levitan is a frequent speaker at wireless industry forums and conferences.

GPS Quick Course 2nd Edition, Systems, Technology and Operation, ISBN # 1-932813-30-6 is 116 pages, 7.5 x 9.25” soft cover book containing 24 easy to understand diagrams and illustrations. The book is the part of the “Wireless Communication” series produced by Althos Publishing. Other books in the series include Introduction to Bluetooth, Introduction to Mobile Telephone Systems, and Introduction to Mobile Data. These books and many other books covering the communication industry can be obtained from Althos, 106 West Vance Street, Fuquay-Varina, NC 27526 USA, phone 1-919-557-2260 and email

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