Click to enlargeIntroduction to IP Video

Digitization, Compression and

Author: Lawrence Harte
ISBN: 1-932813-42-X
Page Size: 8 1/4 x 11 soft cover book
Copyright: 2007
Number of Pages: 76
Number of Diagrams: 43

Free 15 Slide IP Video Tutorial

Printed or Electronic Version (8.9MB) Available - Electronic Version has Color Diagrams


This book explains the fundamentals of video, how it is digitized and compressed, basics of video streaming, methods that are used to store video, how to host digital video on the web, video control protocols, IP video streaming quality measurements and control and how digital rights management may be incorporated into IP video.

You will learn why IP digital video is and has replaced many analog and digital video systems. Industry standard IP video systems can be more cost effective and flexible than dedicated and/or proprietary video systems. Using IP video allows for equipment and software cost reduction, increased ability to control video services, and provides new media capabilities.

The popular analog and digital video formats are described along and how video signals are captured and converted from analog to digital form (video digitization). Because the amount of digital information that is needed to represent high-quality raw digital video requires require several Gigabits per second, digital video is compressed to allow transmission through data networks such as the Internet. You will learn the basics of digital video compression and how video streaming systems allow for the efficient sending of packet video through data networks that may delay or loose packets. You will learn how digital video files are stored and accessed on IP video servers.

There are several different IP video compression methods and protocols that are available. Explained are cost and quality tradeoffs along with common problem areas and risks with sending IP video.

The creators and owners of video want to ensure their intellectual property (IPR) is protected from copying, altering and distribution. An introduction to IP video security and digital rights management is included. Some of the most important topics featured are:

Analog and Digital Video Standards
Capturing Video
Video Digitization and Coding
Video Compression and Coding
Converting Video Formats
Hosting and Streaming Digital Video
Video Security and DRM
Video Control Protocols
Streaming Video Quality and Reliability

Sample Diagrams

Analog Video

This figure demonstrates the operation of the basic NTSC analog television system. The video source is broken into 30 frames per second and converted into multiple lines per frame. Each video line transmission begins with a burst pulse (called a sync pulse) that is followed by a signal that represents color and intensity. The time relative to the starting sync is the position on the line from left to right. Each line is sent until a frame is complete and the next frame can begin. The television receiver decodes the video signal to position and control the intensity of an electronic beam that scans the phosphorus tube ("picture tube") to recreate the display.

Two Pass Video Compression

This figure shows how two-pass encoding can be used to reduce the data transmission rate for digital video signals. This example shows a scene of a sail boat that is slowly moving across the horizon and a bird that is flying toward the sun. During the first encoding pass, the objects in each image are identified. During the 2nd encoding pass, the change in position between the objects in is identified. By sending only the changed position information, this dramatically reduces the amount of data that represents the digial video signal.

IP Video Distortion

This figure shows some of the causes and effects of video distortion that may occur in IP Television systems. This example shows that video digitization and compression converts video into packets that can be sent through data networks (such as the Internet). Packet loss and packet corruption results in distorted video signals. This example shows that some types of distortion include tiling, error blocks and retained images.

Table of Contents

Introduction to IP Video
Frame Rates
Aspect Ratio

Analog Video
Component Video
Composite Video
Separate Video (S-Video)
Progressive Video
PAL Video

Digital Video
4:2:2 Digital Video Format
4:2:0 Digital Video Format
Source Intermediate Format (SIF)
Common Intermediate Format (CIF)
Quarter Common Intermediate Format (QCIF)

Video Digitization
Video Capturing
- Quantization
Film to Video Conversion

Video Compression
Spatial Compression (Image Compression)
- Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)
- Thresholding
- Run Length Encoding (RLE)
- Variable Length Encoding (VLE)
Time Compression (Temporal Compression)
Coding Redundancy (Data Compression)
- Intra Frames (I-Frames)
- Predicted Frames (P-Frames)
- Bi-Directional Frames (B-Frames)
- DC Frames (D-Frames)
Groups of Pictures (GOP)
Compression Scalability
Layered Video Coding
Advanced Video Coding (AVC/H.264)
- Object Coding
- Animated Objects
- Variable Block Sizes
Real Time Encoding
Non-Real Time Encoding

IP Video Transmission
File Downloading
Video Streaming
- Bandwidth Awareness
- Intelligent Streaming
- Bit Stream Syntax
- Multiple Bit Rate
- Frame Dropping
- Stream Thinning
Progressive Downloading
Internet Protocol Packet Transmission
- User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
- Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
- Real Time Transport Protocol (RTP)
Packet Buffering
MPEG IP Packet Encapsulation
Bandwidth Control
Protocol Oppression

Digital Video Quality (DVQ)
Error Blocks
Aliasing Effects
Object Retention

Streaming Control Protocols
Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP)
Digital Storage Media Command and Control (DSM-CC)

Video Formats
Real Media
Windows Media (VC-1)
D1 Video Format
D2 Video Format
Digital Picture Exchange (DPX)
General Exchange Format (GXF)
Advanced Authoring Format (AAF)
Material Exchange Format (MXF)

Video Rendering
Video Compositor
Spatial Scalability
Temporal Scalability
Loss Concealment

IP Video Acronyms-Appendix 1

50i - 50 Interlaced
50p - 50 Progressive
60i - 60 Interlaced
60p - 60 Progressive
AAF - Advanced Authoring Format
ASF - Advanced Streaming Format
ASI - Asynchronous Serial Interface
ASX - Advanced Streaming Index
AVC - Advanced Video Coding
AVI - Audio Video Interleaved
B-Frame - Bidirectional Frame
BIFF - Binary Interchange File Format
BMP - BitMaP
CC - Closed Caption
CIF - Common Intermediate Format
CSR - Connection Success Rate
CVBS - Composite Video Baseband Signal
DAS - Digital Audio Server
DCT - Discrete Cosine Transform
DFT - Discrete Fourier Tranform
DPI - Digital Program Insertion
dpi - Dots Per Inch
DPX - Digital Picture eXchange
DR - Dynamic Range
DSM-CC - Digital Storage Media Command and Control
DTLA - Digital Transmission Licensing Administrator
DTS - Digital Theater Sound
DV Camcorder - Digital Video Camcorder
DVB - Digital Video Broadcast
DVB-H - Digital Video Broadcasting Handheld
DVB-T - Digital Video Broadcasting Terrestrial
DVE - Digital Video Effect
DVI - Digital Video Interactive
DVQ - Digital Video Quality
fps - Frames Per Second
GIF - Graphics Interchange Format
GOP - Group of Pictures
GXF - General eXchange Format
HD - High Definition
HDMI - High Definition Multimedia Interface
HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol
IDCT - Inverse Discrete Cosine Transform
I-Frame - Intra Frame
IP - Internet Protocol
ISO - International Standards Organization
JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group
KQI - Key Quality Indicators
LPI - Lines Per Inch
MP3 - Motion Picture Experts Group Layer 3
MP4 - MPEG - 4
MPEG - Motion Picture Experts Group
MV - Mobile Video
MXF - Material eXchange Format
NSV - Nullsoft Video
NTSC - National Television System Committee
OSD - On Screen Display
PAL - Phase Alternating Line
PDV - Packet Delay Variation
P-Frame - Predicted Frame
PIG - Picture in Graphics
PIP - Picture in Picture
Play-List - Playlist
PMS - Panatone Matching System
PSNR - Peak Signal to Noise Ratio
QCIF - Quarter Common Interchange Format
QCIF - Quarter Common Intermediate Format
QoS Policy - Quality of Service Policy
QoS - Quality Of Service
QT Atoms - Quicktime Atoms
RGB - Red, Green, Blue
RLC - Run Length Coding
RLE - Run Length Encoding
RM - RealMedia
RTN - Real Time Notification
RTP - Real Time Transport Protocol
RTSP - Real Time Streaming Protocol
SD - Standard Definition
SIF - Source Intermediate Format
SMPTE - Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
S-Video - Separate Video
SWF - Shockwave Flash
Sync Impairment - Synchronization Impairments
TCP - Transmission Control Protocol
TV Portal - Television Portal
UDP - User Datagram Protocol
VBI - Video Blanking Interval
VBV - Video Buffer Verifier
VGA - Video Graphics Adapter
VLC - Variable Length Coding
VLE - Variable Length Encoding
VQM - Video Quality Measurement
VRML - Virtual Reality Modeling Language
WM - Windows Media
Y - Luminance Signal

About the Author

Mr. Lawrence Harte is the president of Althos, an expert information provider which researches, trains, and publishes on technology and business industries. He has over 29 years of technology analysis, development, implementation, and business management experience. Mr. Harte has worked for leading companies including Ericsson/General Electric, Audiovox/Toshiba and Westinghouse and has consulted for hundreds of other companies. Mr. Harte continually researches, analyzes, and tests new communication technologies, applications, and services. As of 2008, he has authored over 100 books on telecommunications technologies and business systems covering topics such as mobile telephone systems, data communications, voice over data networks, broadband, prepaid services, billing systems, sales, and Internet marketing. Mr. Harte holds many degrees and certificates including an Executive MBA from Wake Forest University (1995) and a BSET from the University of the State of New York (1990).


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