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This book explains the fundamentals of how MPEG works and how MPEG is used in cable television, satellite systems, mobile telecom and Internet television systems. You will discover the basics of audio and video digitization and compression and the standard formats that are used in MPEG files. Introduction to MPEG explains the processes that control media flow and timing synchronization along with how MPEG transmission can monitor and control audio and video quality. You will discover about video compression, streaming services and media control protocols.
MPEG has the capability of providing multiple media channels including data channels that can provide media information such as play list titles, artists and media descriptions. You will learn how these channels are combined and time synchronized along with how to manage quality of service (QoS).
You will learn how MPEG audio coders can range from low complexity (layer 1) to high complexity (layer 3) including a new AAC that has improved compression performance than MP3. MPEG video coders range from simple digital video compression technologies used in MPEG-1 to complex multi-object compression used in MPEG-4. Various compression technologies such as motion estimation and compression scalability are described.
Discover how the MPEG system groups image elements (pixels) within each image (frame) into small blocks, which are grouped into macroblocks. Macroblocks can be combined into slices and each image may contain several slices. Learn how slices make up frames, which come in several different types and how different types of frames can be combined into a group of pictures (GOP).
Explanations of how MPEG transmission can combine, send and manage the transmission of multiple forms of information (multimedia) is also provided. You will learn that MPEG systems are composed of various types of streams ranging from the basic raw data stream (elementary streams) to stream that contain a single television video (a program stream) or a stream that combines multiple programs (transport streams).
The different frame types including independent reference frames (I-frames), predicted frames (P-frames), bi-directionally predicted frames (B-Frames) and DC frames (basic block reference levels) are described. Learn how MPEG transmission systems regularly broadcast tables that describe programs, program components or other information that is related to the delivery and decoding of programs.
Discover how MPEG standards use profiles to define required protocols and actions that enable the providing of features and services for particular MPEG applications. These applications range from providing standard television services over a broadcast system to providing video services on a mobile wireless network. Some of the most important topics featured are:
· How MPEG Works
· Audio Compression
· Video Compression
· Digital Quantization
· Transmission Formats
· Media Streams
· Frame Types
· Program Tables
· Channel Multiplexing
· Profiles and Levels
There are 34 explanatory diagrams in this book
This figure shows how MPEG systems have evolved over time. This diagram shows that the original MPEG specification (MPEG-1) developed in 1991 offered medium quality digital video and audio at up to 1.2 Mbps, primarily sent via CD ROMs. This standard evolved in 1995 to become MPEG-2 that was used for satellite and cable digital television along with DVD distribution. The MPEG specification then evolved into MPEG-4 in 1999 to permit multimedia distribution through the Internet. This example shows that work continues with MPEG-7 for object based multimedia and MPEG-21 for digital rights management.
MPEG Channel Multiplexing
Table of Contents
This figure shows how MPEG transmission can be used to combine video, audio, and data onto one packet data communication channel. This example shows that multiple types of signals are digitized and converted into a format suitable for the MPEG packetizers. This example shows a MPEG channel that includes video, audio, and user data for a television message. This example shows that each media source is packetized and sent to a multiplexer that combines the channels into a single transport stream. The multiplexer also combines program specific information that describes the content and format of the media channels. The multiplexer uses a clock to time stamp the MPEG information to allow it to be separated and recreated in the correct time sequence.
Introduction to MPEG
MPEG Layer 1 (MP1)
MPEG Layer 2 (MUSICAM – MP2)
MPEG Layer 3 (MP3)
MPEG Layer 3 Pro (MP3Pro)
Advanced Audio Codec (AAC™)
Advanced Audio Codec Plus (AAC Plus™)
High Efficiency Advanced Audio Codec (HE AAC)
Advanced Audio Codec Low Delay (AAC LD)
-Intra Frames (I-Frames)
-Predicted Frames (P-Frames)
-Bi-Directional Frames (B-Frames)
-DC Frames (D-Frames)
Groups of Pictures (GOP)
Advanced Video Coding (AVC/H.264)
-Variable Block Sizes
Elementary Stream (ES)
Packet Elementary Stream (PES)
Program Stream (PS)
Transport Stream (TS)
MPEG Program Tables
Program Allocation Table (PAT)
Program Map Table (PMT)
Conditional Access Table (CAT)
Media Flow Control
Bit Rate Control
Digital Storage Media Command and Control (DSM-CC)
Real Time Interface (RTI)
Digital Video Quality (DVQ)
Digital Rights Management (DRM)
-Simple Profile (SP)
-Main Profile (MP)
-High Profile (HP)
-Advanced Video Coding Profiles
-Scene Graph Profiles
Appendix I - Acronyms
About the Authors
David J. Price, Head of TV Business Development, Ericsson. David Price plays a key role in driving the development of Ericsson’s global TV business and in helping operators and services providers to deliver next-generation, multi-screen TV services. Prior to joining Ericsson, David served as Vice President, Business Development and Marketing Communications at Harmonic Inc., based in Sunnyvale, California. David joined Harmonic from TV/COM International in San Diego (formerly Oak Communications), where he held the position of Vice President. Originally from the United Kingdom, David moved to the United States for his role as Vice President of M/A-COM Linkabit, now Hughes Network Systems.
David is currently serving as President of the MPEG Industry Forum and has served as a board member for more than six years. He was selected in 2003 and 2004 as one of the "Euro 50" by Cable & Satellite Europe magazine, which celebrates those who have demonstrated outstanding leadership and vision in their fields. Originally an electronics engineer, he graduated from CIT with a Fellowship MBA and has an Honors Bachelor’s degree in Cybernetics, Instrument Physics and Mathematics.
Mr. Lawrence Harte is the president of Althos, an expert information provider whom researches, trains, and publishes on technology and business industries. He has over 29 years of technology analysis, development, implementation, and business management experience. Mr. Harte has worked for leading companies including Ericsson/General Electric, Audiovox/Toshiba and Westinghouse and has consulted for hundreds of other companies. Mr. Harte continually researches, analyzes, and tests new communication technologies, applications, and services. As of 2008, he has authored over 100 books on telecommunications technologies and business systems covering topics such as mobile telephone systems, data communications, voice over data networks, broadband, prepaid services, billing systems, sales, and Internet marketing. Mr. Harte holds many degrees and certificates including an Executive MBA from Wake Forest University (1995) and a BSET from the University of the State of New York, (1990).
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