Click to enlargeIntroduction to <br>Optical Communication<a name="top">

Title: Introduction to Optical Communication
ISBN: 1932813292
Page Size: 8 1/4 x 11 soft cover book
Copyright: 2006
Number of Pages: 156
Number of Diagrams: 76
Printed or Electronic Version (6.9MB) Available - Electronic Version has Color Diagrams


This book explains how optical communication systems are used to provide high-speed communication connections. You will learn basic optical principles including how to create and detect light signals, reflection and refraction, basic lightwave propagation and optical signal processing.

.Provided is an overview of the components and basic operation of optical systems including synchronous optical network (SONET), synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH), fiber distributed data interface (FDDI), passive optical networks (PON) and dense wave division multiplexing (DWDM). The common types of network equipment such as ONU, ADM, and optical switches are described.

Discover how optical transmitters and modulators operate including light emitting diodes (LEDs) and LASERS. The differences between these light sources are explained along with how some types of light sources are better suited to send information over short and long distances.

Fiber optic transmission is described including how single mode and multimode optical fibers operate along with their transmission characteristics. You will learn how modal dispersion, material dispersion and cable bending affects the performance and ability of fiber cable to transfer light signals. The methods and devices used to couple light signals into and out of fiber cables are discussed.

You will discover how photodetection and optical receivers convert optical signals into electrical signals along with the different types of photodetectors and their ability (sensitivity) to light signals. Explained are the basics of how optical demodulation and demultiplexing are used to receive, separate multiple channels of optical signals.

An introduction to testing in optical systems is included. The basic methods of optical fiber testing including continuity testing and measuring optical loss is included. Discover how to use an optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) to identify the specific locations of breaks or distortions in fiber cable. Learn the basic steps for fiber optic link and system acceptance testing. Troubleshooting processes and tips are included to help you diagnose and repair equipment and link failures along with how to maintain maintenance records.

Sample Diagrams

Fiber Optic Cable Operation

This figure shows single mode and multimode fiber lines. This diagram shows that multimode fibers have a relatively wide transmission channel that allows signals with different wavelengths to bend back into the center of the fiber strand as they propagate down the fiber. The diagram also shows that single mode fiber has a much smaller transmission channel that only allows a specific wavelength to transfer down the fiber strand.

Fiber Optic Cable Operation

This figure shows how an optical time domain reflectometer can be used to display the characteristics of an optical transmission line from its source to its termination connections by sending an optical pulse into the transmission line and displaying the reflections of the pulse. This diagram shows an OTDR is connected to the fiber optical line that runs through a splice box, patch panel and eventually terminates at an optical network unit (ONU). The screen shows a spike from the initial pulse. The gradual slope of the display is the cable loss between the connection and the first splice. The first dip in the signal line is the signal loss through the splice box. Shortly after the splice loss, another spike is shown from a mechanical connector. Some of the reflections that occur in the mechanical connector actually look like a gain on the OTDR. Finally, the optical pulse is diminished as it is absorbed by the termination in the ONU assembly.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 - Optical Communication Basics

Optical History
Resistance to EMI
Low Cost Bandwidth
Lower Cable Weight
Reduced Power Consumption
High Reliability
Improved Signal Quality
High Security
Analog Signals
Digital Signals
Optical Transmitter
Optical Transmission
- Fiber Transmission
- Free Space Optical (FSO) Transmission
Optical Distribution
- Optical Switching
- Wave Division Multiplexing
Optical Receiver
Fiber to the Neighborhood (FTTN)
Fiber to the Curb (FTTC)
Fiber to the Home (FTTH)
Fiber to the Desktop (FTTD)

Chapter 2 - Optical Principles

Wave Theory
Particle Theory
Optical Spectrum
Optical Power Level
Optical Fiber
Buffer Coating
Step Index Fiber
Graded Index Fiber (GRIN)
Optical Fiber Materials
Glass Fiber
Hard Clad Silica Fiber (HCS)
Plastic Clad Silica Fiber (PCS)
Plastic Optical Fiber (POF)
Manufacturing Optical Fiber
Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD)
Outside Vapor Deposit (OVD)
Vapor Axial Deposition (VAD)
Pulling and Coating the Fiber
Optical Transmission
Fiber Optic Transmission
Single Mode Fiber Transmission
Multimode Fiber Transmission
Free Space Optical Transmission
Optical Fiber Characteristics
Numerical Aperture (NA)
Bending Loss
Pulse Dispersion
Material Dispersion
Intermodal Dispersion
Waveguide Dispersion
Chromatic Dispersion
Polarization Dispersion
Zero Dispersion Point
Dispersion Shifted Fiber (DSF)
Differential Mode Attenuation (DMA)
Equilibrium Mode Distribution (EMD)
Wave Mixing
Optical Channel Bandwidth
Bandwidth Distance Product (BWDP)
Optical Modulation
Optical Amplification
Optical Regeneration
Soliton Transmission
Optical Duplexing
Optical Multiplexing
Optical DeMultiplexing
Wavelength Changing
Optical Power Losses
Fiber Transmission Loss
Optical System Transmission Loss

Chapter 3 - Optical Systems

Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
Fiber Distributed Data Interface II (FDDI-II)
Distributed Queue Dual Bus (DQDB)
Wave Division Multiplexing (WDM)
Coarse WDM system (CWDM)
Dense WDM system (DWDM)
Passive Optical Networks (PON)
Fibre Channel
Resilient Packet Ring
Optical Ethernet

Chapter 4 - Optical Network Equipment

Optical Filters
Optical Couplers
Optical Splitters
Star Couplers
Tap Couplers (T Coupler)
Optical Isolators
Optical Attenuators
Optical Amplifiers
Optical Repeaters
Optical Combiners
Optical Modems
Add Drop Multiplexer (ADM)
Patch Panel
Optical Switches
Electro-Optical Switches
Mechanical Optical Switches
Photonic Switches
Optical Line Termination (OLT)
Optical Network Unit (ONU)
Optical Network Termination (ONT)

Chapter 5 - Optical Fiber Testing

Industry Optical Testing Standards
Optical Continuity Testing
Visual Fault Locator (VFL)
Stabilized Light Source
Optical Mode Filtering
Insertion Loss
Optical Power Loss Testing
Fiber Transmission Power Loss Testing
WDM Power Loss Testing
Optical Return Loss (ORL)
Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR)
OTDR Trace Analysis
OTDR Cable Reel Test
OTDR Connector Loss Measurement
OTDR Cable Loss Calculation
OTDR Transmission Line Testing
OTDR Fault Location
OTDR Short Range Testing
Optical Spectrum Analyzer (OSA)
Fiber Identification
Receiver Threshold Test
Bit Error Rate Test (BERT)
Fiber Acceptance Testing
Maintenance Records


About the Authors

Mr. Mr. Lawrence Harte is the president of Althos, an expert information provider which researches, trains, and publishes on technology and business industries. He has over 29 years of technology analysis, development, implementation, and business management experience. Mr. Harte has worked for leading companies including Ericsson/General Electric, Audiovox/Toshiba and Westinghouse and has consulted for hundreds of other companies. Mr. Harte continually researches, analyzes, and tests new communication technologies, applications, and services. He has authored over 60 books on telecommunications technologies and business systems covering topics such as mobile telephone systems, data communications, voice over data networks, broadband, prepaid services, billing systems, sales, and Internet marketing. Mr. Harte holds many degrees and certificates including an Executive MBA from Wake Forest University (1995) and a BSET from the University of the State of New York (1990).

Mr. Eckard is a design engineer with Alcatel. He has been with Alcatel since 1998 and has a decade's worth of experience in the networking and telecom field. He is an expert in passive optical networking protocols and was responsible for the development of both the BPON and GPON chipsets and the integration of these cores in communication processors for cost effective solutions. Prior to working on passive optical networks, Mr. Eckard designed other optical systems including SONET add-drop multiplexers and DS0/DS1 digital crossconnects. As a chip designer he has detailed knowledge of these different optical systems but has experience at solving system and network related problems. Mr. Eckard holds a BS in Computer Engineering, BS in Electrical Engineering and an MS in Computer Networking from North Carolina State University.

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