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Authors: Lawrence Harte, Avi Ofrane

Number of Pages: 480
Number of Diagrams: 224

Copyright: 2006

Printed or Electronic Version (12.3 MB) Available - Electronic Version has Color Diagrams

This book describes how telecommunications systems and services work and the markets associated with them. Telecommunications technology and services are continually changing. Descriptions and easy to understand diagrams of typical systems and their interconnections are provided for local exchange company (LEC), inter-exchange company (IXC), private telephone exchanges (PBX), computer networks (LANs), data networks (e.g. Internet), billing and customer care systems (BCC).

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There are more than 224 explanatory diagrams in this book

Private Branch Exchange (PBX) System

This diagram shows a private branch exchange (PBX) system. This diagram shows a PBX with telephone sets, voice mail system, and trunk connections to PSTN. The PBX switch calls between telephone sets and also provides them switched access to the PSTN. The voice mail depends on the PBX to switch all calls needing access to it along with the appropriate information to process the call.

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) System

This figure shows a basic DSL system. This diagram shows that the key to DSL technologies is a more efficient use of the 1 MHz of bandwidth available on a single pair of copper telephone lines. A DSL system consists of compatible modems on each end of the local loop. For some systems, the DSL system allows for multiple types of transmission on a single copper pair. This includes analog or ISDN telephone (e.g., POTS) and digital communications (ADSL or VDSL). This diagram shows that there are basic trade offs for DSL systems. Generally, the longer the distance of the copper line, the lower the data rate. Distances of less than 1,000 feet can achieve data rates of over 50 Mbps.

IP Centrex System

This figure shows a basic IP Centrex system that allows a local exchange company (LEC) in New York City to provide Centrex services to a company in Los Angeles. In this diagram, the LEC in New York City uses a class 5 switch to provide for plain old telephone (POTS) and Centrex services to their local customers. The Centrex software is installed in the switch and existing Centrex customers in the local area continue to connect their telephone stations directly to the Class 5 switch. To provide Centrex services to new customers located outside the geographic area, the LEC has installed a network gateway in New York that can communicate with the customer gateway in Los Angeles. Because the network gateway converts all the necessary signaling commands to control and communicate with the customer gateway, the class 5 switch does not care if the customer gateway is in Los Angeles or Tokyo. It simply provides the Centrex services as the users request.

Table of Contents

Introduction to Telecommunications

Key Changes in Telecommunications History
Key Telecommunications Services
Billing and Customer Care (BCC)
Application Service Providers (ASPs)
Basic Communications Systems
End User Equipment
Network Access Lines
- Interconnection Networks
Network Control
Local Exchange Carriers (LEC)
Private Telephone Systems
Inter-Exchange Carriers (IXC)
IP Telephony System
IP Television System
Data Networks
Wireless Networks
- Cellular and PCS
- Paging
- Wireless Data
- Wireless Broadband
- Broadcast

Telecommunications Applications & Services

Voice Communication
- Voice Quality
- Voice Privacy
Data Communication
- Circuit Switched Data
- Packet Switched Data
- Public Data Networks (Internet)
Video Communication
- Analog Video
- Digital Video
Distribution Service (DS)
- Broadcast Transmission
- Multicast Transmission
- Unicast Transmission
- PointtoPoint (PTP)
Bearer Services (BS)
- Constant Bit Rate (CBR)
- Variable Bit Rate (VBR)
- Available Bit Rate (ABR)
- Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR)
- Committed Information Rate (CIR)
- Custom Calling Features
- Voice Mail (VM)
- Central Exchange (Centrex)
- Call Center
- Operator Services
- Information Services
Supplementary Services

Basic Communication Technologies

Signal Types
- Analog
- Digital


- Amplitude Modulation (AM)
- Frequency Modulation (FM)
- Phase Modulation (PM)
- Combined types of Modulation
Channel Multiplexing
- Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM)
- Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)
- Code Division Multiplexing (CDM)
- Digital Speech Interpolation (DSI)
Communication Systems
- Simplex
- Half Duplex
- Full Duplex (FDX)
- Time Division Duplex (TDD)
Analog Signal Processing
- Signal Filtering
- Signal Amplification
- Signal Shaping
Digital Signal Processing
- Digitization of an Analog Signal
- Digital Signal Regeneration
- Data Compression
- Error Detection and Error Correction
- Echo Cancellation
- Digital Signal Processor (DSP)
Control Message Signaling
- InBand Signaling
- OutofBand Signaling
Switching Systems
- Crossbar
- Time Slot Interchange (TSI)
- Packet Switches
Network Control
- Common Channel Signaling (CCS)
- Authentication
- Authorization
- Information Privacy

Introduction to Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTNs)

- Local Loop
- Switching Systems
- Transmission Systems
- Numbering Plan
- Call Processing
- Public Telephone System Interconnection
- Common Channel Signaling (SS7)
- SS7 and Internet Protocol (IP) Signaling Systems
- Advanced Intelligent Networks (AIN)
- Packetized Voice
- Fiber Distribution Networks
- Softswitches
- Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS)
- Integrated Digital Services Network (ISDN)
- Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
- Digital Loop Carrier (DLC)
- Passive Optical Network (PON)
- Voice
- Centrex
- Leased Lines
- Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)

Private Telephone Networks

- Telephone Stations
- Interconnections (Wiring)
- Switching Systems
- System Topology
- Numbering Plans
Market Growth
- Key Telephony System (KTS) Market
- Hosted PBX (IP Centrex) Market
- Private Branch Exchange (PBX) Market
- Computer Telephony Market
- Internet Protocol PBX (IPBX) Market
- Key Telephone System (KTS)
- Private Branch Exchange (PBX)
- Hosted PBX Systems
- Computer Telephony Integration (CTI)
- Internet Protocol PBX (IP PBX or IPBX)
- Wireless Private Branch Exchange (WPBX)
Call Processing Features
- Distinctive Ringing
- Call Hold
- Call Forwarding
- Selective Call Forwarding
- Selective Call Acceptance
- Conference Call
- Call Pickup
- Call Transfer
- Call Waiting (CW)
- Calling Line Identification (CLI)
- Hunting
- Voice Dialing
- Night Service
- Automatic Callback
- Automated Attendant System
- Automatic Call Distribution (ACD)
- Fax on Demand (FOD)
- Interactive Voice Response (IVR)
- Voice Mail (VM)
- Videoconferencing
- Web Conferencing
- Call Centers

Data Networks

- Data Terminals
- Network Interface Card (NIC)
- Network Wiring
- Network Distribution and Routing
- Network Access Control
- Protocols
- Network Management
- Personal Area Networks (PAN)
- Premises Distribution Networks (PDN)
- Local Area Networks (LANs)
- Metropolitan Area Networks (MANís)
- Wide Area Networks (WANís)
- Wireless Data Networks
Data Network Components
- Data Modems
- Digital Service Unit (DSU)/Channel Service Unit (CSU)
- Hub
- Bridge
- Routers (Packet Switches)
- Firewall
- Gateways
Data Communications Systems
- Ethernet
- Token Ring
- Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
- Passive Optical Networks (PONs)
- Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
- Frame Relay
- Internet
- Circuit Switched Data Service
- Packet Data Service
- Virtual Private Networks (VPNís)
- Internet Service Provider (ISP)
- Unicast Service
- Multicast Service
- Broadcast Service
- Constant Bit Rate (CBR)
- Available Bit Rate (ABR)
- Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR)

IP Telephony

- Converting Voice to Data
- Sending Packets
- Converting Packets to Telephone Service
- Managing the Connections
IP Telephony System Protocols
- H.323 Packet Based Media Communication System
- Session Initiated Protocol (SIP)
- Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP)
IP Telephony System Types
- Internet Telephone Service Providers (ITSP)
- IP Centrex
- Internet Protocol Private Branch Exchange (IPBX)
Basic IP Telephony Communication Services
- Voice Service
- Mobility Management (via Registration)
- Call Hold
- Call Forwarding
- Click To Dial
IP Telephony Communication Servers

IP Television

Viewing IP Television Channels
- Multimedia Computer
- Analog Television Adapters (ATVA)
- IP Television (IP Television)
- Mobile Video
Control over IP Television Services
- Instant Activation
- Real Time Accounting and Billing
- Channel Selection
New Television Features and Services br> Anywhere Television Service
- Global Television Channels
- Personal Media Channels (PMC)
- Addressable Advertising
- Television on Demand (ToD)
How IPTV and Internet Television Systems Work
- Media Digitization
- Digital Media Compression
- Converting Packets to Television Service
- Managing the Television Connections
- Multiple IP Televisions per Home
- Digital Rights Management (DRM)
IP Television Systems
- Managed IP Television Systems
- Internet Television Service Providers (ITVSPs)
- Private IP Television Systems
IP Television Quality, Security, and Reliability
- Audio Quality
- Video Quality
- Reliability
- Industry Standards
IP Television Market
Internet Television Service Provider Costs
- Content Licensing
- Data Transfer Cost
- Subscriber Management
- Sales and Marketing
- Media Management Systems
- Software Licensing

Wireless Systems

Radio Frequency (RF)
- Licensing
- Unlicensed Frequency Bands
- Frequency Allocation
- RF Channels and Bandwidth
- Radios
- Radio Towers and Transmitter Equipment
- Switching Facilities
- Interconnection to Other Networks
- Customer Databases
- System Security
Market Growth
- Mobile Telephone Service
- Mobile Data Networks
- Wireless Broadband
- Mobile Telephone Systems (MTS)
- Broadcast Radio
- Broadcast Television
- Mobile Data Networks (MDN)
- Land Mobile Radio (LMR)
- Aircraft Telephones
- Satellite
- Wireless PBX (WPBX)
- Residential Cordless
- Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN)
- Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)
- Wireless Cable
- Wireless Local Loop (WLL)
- Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax)
- Mobile Voice
- Paging
- Wireless Data
- Broadcast Radio
- Broadcast Television

Telecom Billing

Introduction to Billing - Types of Services
- Standard Billing Process
- Real Time Billing
- Multilingual Support
- Multiple Currencies
- Inter-carrier Settlements
Billing Process
- Event Sources and Tracking
- Mediation Devices
- Call Detail Records (CDRs)
Major Billing Functions
- FrontEnd: Call Processing
- Back End: Cycle Billing
- Clearinghouse
- Invoices
- Management Reporting
- Invoicing
- Processing Payments
- Posting to the Financial System
Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
- Account Activation
- Account Management
Billing System Costs
- Hardware and Software
- Invoice Processing (Batching)
- Bill Printing and Mailing
- Call Center
- Collections
Billing Standards
- Exchange Message Record (EMR)
- Automatic Message Accounting (AMA)
- Carrier Interexchange Billing Exchange Record (CIBER)
- Transferred Accounting Process (TAP)
- Network Data Management Ė Usage (NDMU)
- Interim Standard 124 (IS124)
The Future of Billing and Customer Care
- Applications Service Providers (ASPs)
- Local Number Portability (LNP)
- Customer Self-Care


About the Authors

Mr. Lawrence Harte has over 29 years of experience in the electronics industry including company leadership, product management, development, marketing, design, and testing of telecommunications (cellular), radar, and microwave systems. He has been issued patents relating to cellular technology. He has authored over 75 articles on related subjects and has been a speaker and panel moderator at industry trade events. Mr. Harte earned executive MBA at Wake Forest University and received his Bachelors degree from University of the State of New York. During the TDMA digital cellular standard development process, Mr. Harte served as an editor and voting company representative for the Telecommunications Industries Association (TIA) TR45.3, digital cellular standards committee. As of 2004, Mr. Harte had authored and co-authored over 50 books relating to telecommunications technology. He has served as a consultant and expert witness for leading companies including Ericsson, Siemens, VLSI, AMD, Casio, Samsung, Sony, ATT, Nokia, Hughes and many others.

Avi Ofrane founded the Billing College in 1996, a training company addressing the converging market trends associated with telecommunications Billing and Customer Care. The Billing College is a spin-off company of Mr. Ofrane's technology consulting company, Jupiter Data, Inc., established in 1990. Mr. Ofrane began his career in 1977 as an analyst with the IBM Corporation and has since 1982 concentrated exclusively on the telecommunications industry, in which he is now a recognized expert in Billing and Customer Care. Throughout his extensive career, Mr. Ofrane has been involved in all aspects of the industry, from strategic planning and executive management to vendor evaluation and project implementation. Mr. Ofrane lectures extensively on Billing and Customer Care issues, strategies, methodologies, and practices. He is a frequently requested speaker at major North American and European conferences. Mr. Ofrane is currently President and CEO of the Billing College, as well as a master instructor of the company's courses. Mr. Ofrane is the co-author of the book "Telecom Made Simple" and has written numerous articles for international trade publications. Mr. Ofrane holds a Bachelor of Science in Computer Science from Pennsylvania State University.

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This book Telecom Systems shows how the latest telecommunications technologies are converting traditional telephone and computer networks into cost competitive integrated digital systems with yet undiscovered applications. These systems are continuing to emerge and become more complex.

Telecom Systems explains how various telecommunications systems and services work and how they are evolving to meet the needs of bandwidth and the applications involved for the hungry consumers.

This book describes how telecommunications systems and services work and the markets associated with them. Telecommunications technology and services are continually changing. Descriptions and easy to understand diagrams of typical systems and their interconnections are provided for local exchange company (LEC), inter-exchange company (IXC), private telephone exchanges (PBX), computer networks (LANs), data networks (e.g. Internet), billing and customer care systems (BCC).

The book starts with a basic introduction to telecom communication. It covers the different types of telecom industries, who controls and regulates them, and provides a basic definition of each of the major telecom technologies. A broad overview of the telecom voice, data, and multimedia applications is provided. You will discover the fundamentals of telecom transmission and switching technologies and their terminology.

The basics of public telephone systems are provided along with the structure and operation of local exchange carrier (LEC) systems. Described are the different types of analog loop, digital loop, switches, multi-channel communication lines and signaling control systems.

The different types of private telephone systems and their evolution are covered. Included is the basic operation, attributes and services for key telephone systems (KTS), central exchange (CENTREX) systems, private branch exchange (PBX) and computer telephony integration (CTI). You will learn how these systems are converting from fixed proprietary systems to flexible industry standard systems.

This book covers how digital subscriber lines (DSL) are important to telephone operators, what services it can offer, and the installation options. You will discover the different types of DSL including HDSL, ADSL, SDSL, VDSL, and the new ADSL2+ systems.

The different types of wireless systems are explained including cellular and personal communication services (PCS), broadcast radio and television, paging, wireless data, land mobile radio (LMR), aircraft telephones, satellite, wireless PBX, residential cordless, wireless local area networks (WLAN), short range data (piconets,) wireless cable, wireless broadband (WiMax), wireless local loops (WLL), and 1st, 2nd, 2.5, and third generation wireless (3G).

IP Telephony services and systems are described and explained. You will learn about IP private branch exchange (IP PBX) and IP Centrex managed IP telephone services and will discover how Internet telephone service providers (ITSPs) can provide high-quality telephone services over unmanaged broadband communication systems.

You will discover how the high data transmission bandwidth available from broadband connections (such as DSL service) is being used to provide digital television service to customers (IPTV). Find out how the use of an IP television set top box (IP STB) will allow customers to select from thousands of television channels available through their telephone line and watch them on their standard television.

Telecom billing provides the fundamentals for telecom billing and customer care (BCC) systems. The topics that are explained include: types of services, standard billing processes, real time billing, multilingual support, multiple currencies, inter-carrier settlements, event sources and tracking, mediation devices, call detail records (CDRs), call processing, cycle billing, clearinghouse, invoicing, management reporting, processing payments.

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