Click to enlargeIPTV Testing

Author: Lawrence Harte
ISBN: 1-932813-88-8
Page Size: 7.5" x 9.25" soft cover book
Copyright: 2008

Number of Pages: 116
Number of Diagrams: 39

Free 28 Slide IPTV Testing Tutorial

Printed or Electronic Version (4.1MB) Available - Electronic Version has Color Diagrams


This book explains how to monitor, test, and diagnose IPTV systems and services. Covered are the quantitative (packet loss, error rate) and qualitative (perceptual) quality measurement and control processes. Discover how quality of experience (QoE) can be very different than traditional quality of service (QoS) measurements.

IPTV systems are complex multimedia communication systems and communicating through them involves the use of multiple layers, which can make testing and diagnostics more difficult. Discover how different layers in an IPTV system can interact and why multilayer testing may be used to evaluate and diagnose operation and performance issues.

Learn about audio, video, and MPEG formats and what parts of them can be measured in IPTV systems. Audio quality characteristics including fidelity, frequency response, and signal to noise ratio are described. Key video quality characteristics such as error blocks, aliasing effects, object retention, and artifacts are explained.

Discover the different types of network measurements such as packet loss, gap loss, and jitter and how they influence quality of service (QoS). The types of content measurements such as frame loss rate (FLR), synchronization loss, and audiovisual synchronization offset are explained. Command and control measurements such as channel change time, encoder initialization time, and connect time are described.

The fundamentals of full reference, partial reference, and zero reference quality processes such as MDI, MPQM, and V-Factor are explained. Other types of quality measures including video, audio, synchronization, interaction (control), and other measurable values are explained.

The different types of testing including laboratory, acceptance, conformance, field, and diagnostic testing are described along with some of the common types of IPTV test equipment that are used. You will learn about the different types of network monitoring devices and probes that are used in IPTV systems, what they can do, and how to understand and analyze the information they provide to determine the operation and performance of the IPTV system. Find out about test client software and how it can be installed in devices such as set top boxes which can measure and report back performance information to a network monitoring system. Some of the key areas covered in this book include:

IPTV Testing Challenges
Testing Methods
Audio, Video, and MPEG Formats
Audio Quality
Video Quality
Network Measurements
Content Quality Measurements
Command and Control Metrics
MDI, MPQM, V-Factor Quality Rating
IPTV Test Equipment

Sample Diagrams

There are 39 explanatory diagrams in this book

IP Video Distortion

This figure shows some of the causes and effects of video distortion that may occur in IP Television systems. This example shows that video digitization and compression converts video into packets that can be sent through data networks (such as the Internet). Packet loss and packet corruption results in distorted video signals. This example shows that some types of distortion include tiling, error blocks and retained images.

V-Factor Test Model

This figure shows that V-Factor uses and enhanced version of the MPQM quality metrics system to determine the quality of a video signal. V-Factor uses measurements from timing jitter, enhanced image entropy, and network impairments to determine the quality score The program clock reference is verified to determine timing jitter and network measurements are used to quality packet loss. The MPQM system also evaluates the type of content using the type of coder, the mix of image frames (I, P, and B), and the quantizer level to determine the entropy that can influence how the video is displayed.

PEVQ Measurement

This figure shows how a PEVQ score is calculated. This example shows that a reference video source and test video source (received video) are aligned in time and space. The PEVQ system then determines the differences between the video signals (Y, Cr, Cb). These differences are characterized and rated to determine a PEVQ score.

Table of Contents

IPTV Testing
IPTV Connection
IPTV Layers
Quality of Service (QoS)
Quality of Experience (QoE)

Why Test for IPTV
Customer Satisfaction
Network Utilization
Failure Predictions
Opportunity Identification
Service Level Agreement (SLA)

IPTV Testing Challenges
Mixed Media
Content Dependent
Multiple Conversions
Content Protection
Error Concealment

Testing Types
Operational Testing
Functional Testing
-Feature Function Testing
End to End Testing
Multilayer Testing
Acceptance Testing
Field Testing
Diagnostic Testing
-Loopback Testing
Laboratory Testing
Alpha Testing
Beta Testing
Performance Testing
Interoperability Testing
Load Testing
Stress Testing
Service Capacity Testing

Content Flow
Media Capturing
Packet Transmission
Packet Reception

IPTV System
Content Aggregation
Core Network
Access Network
Premises Network
Viewing Devices

Audio Compression
-Waveform Coding
-Perceptual Coding

Video Compression
-Spatial Compression (Image Compression)
-Time Compression (Temporal Compression)
-Coding Redundancy (Data Compression)
Video Elements
-Intra Frames (I-Frames)
-Predicted Frames (P-Frames)
-Bi-Directional Frames (B-Frames)
Frame Rate
Groups of Pictures (GOP)
Quantizer Scaling

Elementary Stream (ES)
Packet Elementary Stream (PES)
Program Stream (PS)
Transport Stream (TS)

Quality Metrics
Objective Quality
-Mean Square Error (MSE)
-Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR)
Subjective Quality

Audio Quality
Audio Fidelity
Frequency Response (FR)
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
Noise Level
Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR)

Video Quality
Error Blocks
Quantization Noise
Aliasing Effects
Object Retention
Slice Losses
Color Pixelation

Testing Models
Full Reference
Reduced Rate Reference
Zero Reference (Non Reference)

Network Measurements
Packet Loss Rate (PLR)
Packet Discard Rate (PDR)
Packet Latency
Packet Jitter
-Packet Delay Variation (PDV)
Out of Order Packets
Gap Loss
-Packet Gap
Route Flapping
Loss of Signal
Error Free Seconds (EFS)
Bit Error Rate (BER)
Connection Success Rate (CSR)
Line Rate
Stream Rate

Content Quality Measurements
Delay Factor (DF)
Frame Count
Frame Loss Rate (FLR)
Media Loss Rate (MLR)
Buffer Time
Rebuffer Events
Rebuffer Time
Stream Integrity
Audio Visual Synchronization Offset
Transport Stream Rate
Program Stream Rate
Clock Rate Jitter
Jitter Discards
Compression Ratio
Protocol Conformance
Program Transport Stream
-Program Association Table Error (PAT Error)
-Continuity Count Error
-Program Map Table Error (PMT Error)
-Packet Identifier Error (PID Error)
-Transport Stream Synchronization Loss (TS-Sync Loss)
-Transport Error
-Program Clock Rate Error (PCR Error)
-Presentation Time Stamp Error (PTS Error)
-Cyclic Redundancy Check Error (CRC Error)
-Channel Map
Image Entropy
Missing Channels

Command and Control Measurements
Channel Change Time (Zap Time)
-Multicast Join Time
Set Top Box Initialization Time
Encoder Initialization Time
Connect Time

Content Quality Rating Systems
Moving Picture Quality Metrics (MPQM)
Media Delivery Index (MDI)
V Factor
Video Service Transmission Quality (VSTQ)
Video Service Picture Quality (VSPQ)
Video Service Audio Quality (VSAQ)
Perceptual Evaluation of Video Quality (PEVQ)
Mean Opinion Score (MOS)
-Video Mean Opinion Score (MOS-V)
-Audio Mean Opinion Score (MOS-A)
-Audiovisual Mean Opinion Score (MOS-AV)
-Gap Video Mean Opinion Score (Gap MOS-V)
-Burst Video Mean Opinion Score (Burst MOS-V)
Single Stimulus Continuous Quality Evaluation (SSCQE)

Test Equipment
Video Analyzer
MPEG Generator
Protocol Analyzer
Built-in Test Equipment (BITE)
Impairment Emulator

Network Monitoring
Mirror Port
-Active Port
-In Line Monitoring
-Hierarchical Monitoring
-Alarm Views
Network Probes
-Measurement Probe
-Reference Probe
Test Client
Heartbeat Generator

Fault Management
Fault Predictions
Fault Finder
Fault Analysis

IPTV Testing Acronyms (Appendix 1)

AN - Access Network
BER - Bit Error Rate
BITE - Built - In Test Equipment
Blockiness - Block Distortion
CBR - Constant Bit Rate
CCP - Channel Change Performance
CCT - Channel Change Time
CDE - Content Delivery Engine
CDS - Content Delivery System
CN - Core Network
COS - Class of Service
CP - Content Protection
CRC Error - Cyclic Redundancy Check Error
Demarc - Demarcation Point
DEU - Data Extraction Unit
DF - Delay Factor
DPI - Deep Packet Inspection
DPI - Digital Program Insertion
DPU - Data Polling Unit
DUT - Device Under Test
DVQ - Digital Video Quality
EFS - Error Free Seconds
EPSNR - Estimated Peak Signal to Noise Ratio
FEC Effectiveness - Forward Error Correction Effectiveness
FOA - First Office Application
Gap MOS-V - Gap Video Mean Opinion Score
HSS - Home Subscriber Subsystem
HVS - Human Vision System
IPLR - Internet Packet Loss Rate
KQI - Key Quality Indicators
Lab Tests - Laboratory Testing
LOS - Loss of Signal
Luma - Luminance
MAC Address - Medium Access Control Address
MAPDV - Mean Absolute Packet Delay Variation
MDI - Media Delivery Index
MIB - Management Information Base
MLR - Media Loss Rate
MOS - Mean Opinion Score
MOS-A - Mean Opinion Score Audio
MOS-AV - Mean Opinion Score Audiovisual
MOS-V - Mean Opinion Score Video
MPEG TS Analysis - MPEG Transport Stream Analysis
MPLS - Multi - Protocol Label Switching
MPQM - Moving Picture Quality Metrics
MR - DVR - Multi - Room Digital Video Recorder
MSE - Mean Square Error
nDVR - Network Digital Video Recorder
NMS - Network Management Station
NMS - Network Management System
OID - Object Identifier
OS - Operating System
PAQ - Perceived Audio Quality
PCR - Program Clock Reference
PCR Error - Program Clock Reference Error
PDN - Premises Distribution Network
PDR - Packet Discard Rate
PEVQ - Perceptual Evaluation of Video Quality
PID - Packet Identifier
PIP - Picture in Picture
PLR - Packet Loss Rate
PMT - Program Map Table
POC - Proof of Concept
POE - Point of Entry
PQA - Picture Quality Analysis
PS - Program Stream
PSNR - Peak Signal to Noise Ratio
PTS Error - Presentation Time Stamp Error
QoE - Quality of Experience
QoS - Quality Of Service
QoS Awareness - Quality of Service Awareness
RMON - Remote network MONitoring
RMON Probe - Remote Monitoring Probe
SDI - Serial Digital Interface
SHE - Super Headend
SI - System Integration
SLA - Service Level Agreement
SLA Violations - Service Level Agreement Violations
SNMP - Simple Network Management Protocol
SNMPv1 - Simple Network Management Protocol version 1
SNMPv2 - Simple Network Management Protocol version 2
SNMPv3 - Simple Network Management Protocol Version 3
SOC - System On Chip
SOM - Server Operations and Management
SRD - System Requirements Document
SSCQE - Single Stimulus Continuous Quality Evaluation
SUT - System Under Test
SVS - Switched Video Service
SVT - System Verification Test
Sync Impairment - Synchronization Impairments
TAR - Test Accuracy Ratio
Test Model - Testing Models
TIMS - Transmission Impairment Measurement System
TPU - Threshold Processing Unit
TS Analysis - Transport Stream Analysis
TS - Sync - Transport Stream Synchronization
TS - Sync Loss - Transport Stream Synchronization Loss
TV Server - Television Server
TVQM - Television Video Quality Metrics
VAC - Video Admission Control
VBR - Variable Bit Rate
V-Factor - Video Factor
VPN - Virtual Private Network
VQEG - Video Quality Experts Group
VQS - Video Quality Score
VSAQ - Video Service Audio Quality
VSMQ - Video Service Multimedia Quality
VSPQ - Video service picture quality
VSTQ - Video Service Transmission Quality
VTS - Video Test System

IPTV Test Equipment Manufacturers

Agilent IPTV Testing

Anacise Testnology Triple Play

Empirix - IMS

Azimuth WiMAX

Berkeley Varitronics - WiMAX

EXFO Transport Testing

Hewlet Packard IPTV and Communication Testing

Ineoquest IPTV and Network Testing

Ixia IPTV and IP Testing

JDSU IPTV and Communications Testing

MiraVid Video Analyzers

Omnicor IP Network Testing

Opticom Video Testing

Pixelmetrix IPTV and Broadcast Testing

Semaca Video Quality Testing

Shenick IPTV and Network Testing

Spirent IPTV and VoIP Testing

Sunrise Telecom IPTV and Optical Testing


Telchemy Digital Video

Tektronix IPTV and Other Test Equipment

Video Clarity Video Quality Testing

Witbe, Inc. Website Load Testing

If your company is not listed here or is incorrectly listed here, please email to

About the Author

Mr. Lawrence Harte is the president of Althos, an expert information provider which researches, trains, and publishes on technology and business industries. He has over 29 years of technology analysis, development, implementation, and business management experience.

Mr. Harte managed a repair and calibration laboratory, created many test and measurement procedures, and is the inventor of several patents on communication systems. Mr. Harte has appeared on television as an industry expert and has been referenced in over 75 communications related articles in industry magazines. He has been a speaker and moderator at numerous industry seminars and trade shows.

Mr. Harte has worked for leading companies including Ericsson/General Electric, Audiovox/Toshiba and Westinghouse and has consulted for hundreds of other companies. Mr. Harte continually researches, analyzes, and tests new communication technologies, applications, and services.

Mr. Harte has instructed communication courses at The Billing College, Wray Castle, Nokia, MCI, Panasonic, Telcordia, and at many other companies. He has received numerous certificates and diplomas including IPTV, VoIP/Internet Telephony, 3G wireless, wireless billing, Bluetooth technology, Internet billing, cryptograph, microwave measurement, calibration, radar, nuclear power, Dale Carnegie, 360 leadership, and public speaking.

As of 2008, he has authored over 100 books on telecommunications technologies and business systems covering topics such as mobile telephone systems, data communications, voice over data networks, broadband, prepaid services, billing systems, sales, and Internet marketing. Mr. Harte holds many degrees and certificates including an Executive MBA from Wake Forest University (1995) and a BSET from the University of the State of New York, (1990).


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