Click to enlargeUMTS LTE

Network, Services, Technologies,
and Operation

Author: Lawrence Harte
ISBN: 1-93281315-2
Page Size: 7.5" x 9.25" soft cover book
Copyright: 2008
Number of Pages: 116
Number of Diagrams: 37

25 Slide UMTS LTE Tutorial

Printed or Electronic Version (3.9MB) Available - Electronic Version has Color Diagrams


This book explains the basic components, technologies used, and operation of UMTS LTE systems. You will discover why mobile telephone service providers are upgrading their 2nd and 3nd generation digital mobile to a more efficient and feature rich UMTS LTE generation system.

Discover the key features that LTE systems provide that go beyond the capabilities of existing 2G and 3G mobile systems such as ultra high-speed internet (100 Mbps+), television (multicast video), and low latency services (packet voice).

Related Books

Explained are the physical and logical radio channel structures of the LTE systems along with the basic frame and slot structures. Described are the fundamental capabilities and operation of the LTE radio channel including channel coding, modulation types, and low latency transmission processes.

You will discover the key functional sections of a LTE network component and how they communicate with each other. Learn how and why LTE systems separate control signing channel from user data channels. You will also discover how LTE systems can interoperate with existing mobile systems which simplify the migration plan from less efficient mobile systems to more cost effective and capable LTE systems.

Learn LTE systems can evolve into 4th generation ultra broadband systems using spatial division multiple access (SDMA) technology which will eventually able to provide up to 1 Gbps data transfer rates. Some of the most important topics featured in this book are:

How LTE systems operate
New LTE services such as multicast video
The LTE radio channel structure
Types of physical and logical channels
LTE network components
Network components and their connections
How GSM and UMTS WCDMA can be upgraded to LTE technology

Sample Diagrams

There are 37 explanatory diagrams in this book

LTE Key Features

This figure shows that some of the key features of the UMTS LTE system include increased data transmission rate, spectrum flexibility, reduced latency, and lower costs. Increased data transmission rates are possible through the use of wider radio channels and efficient modulation types. Spectrum flexibility allows for the use of variable channel bandwidth and channel duplexing types. Reduced latency is enabled by the use of more efficient channel control assignment processes. Lower cost is provided from the ability to serve more customers using a reduced number of radio channels and through automated system configuration processes.

Upgrading GSM and 3G to LTE

This figure shows how a 3G and GSM system can be upgraded to offer UMTS LTE services. This diagram shows that typically 1 to 4 wide WCDMA or 2 or more narrow GSM channels are typically removed to allow a very wide 20 MHz UMTS LTE channel to be added. This example also shows that a separate base station assembly is added to communicate with a UMTS evolved packet core (EPC).

Table of Contents

UMTS Long Term Evolution

UMTS LTE Industry Specifications

Key LTE Features

Increased Data Transmission Rates
- More Efficient Modulation Technologies
Reduced Transmission Delay (Faster Response Time)
Self Configuration and Optimization
All IP Backbone Network
Voice Call Continuity (VCC)
Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Radio
Multibeam Radio

Evolution of UMTS

Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM)
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)
Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN)
High Speed Packet Access (HSPA)
Evolved High Speed Packet Access (HSPA+)

UMTS LTE Services

Voice Services
Data Services
- Circuit Switched Data
- Packet Switched Data
- Messaging
Group Services
Multicast Services
- Group Call Service (GCS)
- Voice Broadcast Services (VBS)
Location Based Services (LBS)

UMTS LTE Products (Radio Devices)

Network Termination Units (NTU)
Mobile Telephones
PCMCIA Air Cards
External Radio Modems
Embedded Radio Modules
Digital Media Players
Location Devices
RF Power Classification
- User Equipment Classes (UE Classes)

UMTS LTE Radio Channels

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)
Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA)
- Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR)
Multiple Input Multiple Out (MIMO)
- Antenna Ports
Frequency Bands
RF Channel Bandwidth
- Channel Raster
Resource Blocks
Physical Downlink Channels
- Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH)
- Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH)
- Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH)
- Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH)
- Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH)
- Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH)
Physical Uplink Channels
- Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH)
- Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH)
- Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)
Frame Structure
- Frequency Division Duplex (FDD)
- Time Division Duplex (TDD)
- Type 1 Frame
- Type 2 Frame
Transport Channels
- Broadcast Channel (BCH)
- Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH)
- Paging Channel (PCH)
- Multicast Channel (MCH)
- Uplink Shared Channel (UL-SCH)
- Random Access Channel (RACH)
Logical Channels
- Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
- Paging Control Channel (PCCH)
- Common Control Channel (CCCH)
- Multicast Control Channel (MCCH)
- Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH)
- Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH)
- Multicast Traffic Channel (MTCH)
Channel Mapping

Radio Characteristics

Peak Data Rate
Control Plane Latency
Control Plane Capacity
User Plane Latency
User Data Throughput
Spectrum Flexibility
- Frequency Bandwidth Allocation
- Duplex Flexibility
Spectrum Efficiency
- Full Mobility
- Seamless Mobility
Modes of Operation
- Bandwidth Configuration
- Transmission Bandwidth
- Guard Bands
Duplex Operating Modes
- Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD)
- Time Division Duplexing (TDD)
Modulation Types
- Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK)
- 16-QAM
- 64-QAM
Channel Coding
- Convolution Coding
- Turbo Codes
- Interleaving
RF Power Control
Time Alignment
- Timing Advance (TA)
- Spatial Division Multiple Access (SDMA)

UMTS Network

- User Plane
- Control Plane (C-Plane)
- Access Stratum (AS)
- Non-Access Stratum (NAS)
- Global Multimedia Mobility (GMM)
Radio Access Technology (RAT)
Evolved Packet Cores (EPC)
Evolved Node B (eNB)
Mobile Management Entity (MME)
Serving Gateway (S-GW)
Packet Gateway (P-GW)

Network Interfaces

X2 Interface
S1 Interface
S2A Interface
S2B Interface
Iuant Interface
S3 Interface
S4 Interface
S5 Interface
S6A Interface
S7 Interface
SGi Interface

Radio Protocol Layers

Radio Resource Control (RRC)
Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP)
Broadcast and Multicast Control Protocol (BMC)
Radio Link Control (RLC)
- Unacknowledged Mode (UM)
- Acknowledged Mode (AM)
- Transparent Mode (TM)
Medium Access Control (MAC) Layer
Physical Layer (PHY)
- Signaling Radio Bearer (SRB)
- Data Radio Bearer (DRB)

IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)

Call Session Control Function (CSCF)
Home Subscriber Server (HSS)

UMTS LTE System Operation

- Authentication
- Paging
Tracking Area (TA)
User Equipment Context (UE Context)
Mobility States
- Detached State
- Idle State
- Active State
Access Control
Handover (HO)
- Intra-System Handover
- Inter-System UMTS LTE to GERAN Handover
- Inter-Radio Access Technology Handover (Inter-RAT Handover)
- Backward Handover
Discontinuous Reception (DRx)
Discontinuous Transmission (DTx)
Speech Coding


Radio Network Temporary Identifier (RNTI)
- System Information Radio Network Temporary Identifier (SI-RNTI)
- System Change Radio Network Temporary Identifier (SC-RNTI)
- Cell Radio Network Temporary Identifier (C-RNTI)
- Paging Radio Network Temporary Identifier (P-RNTI)
- Random Access Radio Network Temporary Identifier (RA-RNTI)
Mobile Station ISDN (MSISDN)
International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)
International Mobile Equipment Identifier (IMEI)
Temporary Mobile Station Identity (TMSI)
S-Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (S-TMSI)
Local Mobile Station Identity (LMSI)
IP Address
- Static IP Addressing
- Dynamic IP Addressing
- Subscriber Profile Identifier (SPID)

Location Based Services (LBS)

Positioning Methods
Commercial Location Services (Commercial LCS)
Internal Location Services (Internal LCS)
Emergency Location Services (Emergency LCS)
Lawful Intercept Location Services (Lawful Intercept LCS)

Evolved Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services (E-MBMS)

MBMS Architecture
- MBMS Gateway
- Multi-Cell/Multicast Coordination Entity (MCE)
- M1 Interface
- M2 Interface
- M3 Interface
eNB Synchronization

UMTS Billing

Offline Charging
- Charging Data Function (CDF)
- Charging Gateway Function (CGF)
Online Charging
- Policy Control and Charging Function (PCRF)
- Policy and Charging Enforcement Point (PCEP)
Billing System

Upgrading 3G and GSM to UMTS LTE

Appendix 1 Acronyms

16-QAM - 16 Level Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
3GPP - 3rd Generation Partnership Project
3GPP System - 3rd Generation Partnership Project System
64 - QAM - 64 Level Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
AC - Access Class
AC Barring - Access Class Barring
AGW - Access Gateway
AN - Access Network
AS - Access Stratum
AM - Acknowledged Mode
ACK - Acknowledgment
ARB - Active Resource Blocks
ACLR - Adjacent Carrier Leakage Ratio
ACS - Adjacent Channel Selectivity
AWS - Advanced Wireless Services Spectrum
AMBR - Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate
AIPN - All Internet Protocol Network
ARP - Allocation and Retention Priority
ADC - Analog to Digital Conversion
AF - Application Function
AP ID - Application Protocol Identity
ARQ - Automatic Repeat Reqeust
BSC Area - Base Station Controller Area
Beamforming - Beam Forming
BS - Bearer Services
Beyond 3G - Beyond 3rd Generation
BER - Bit Error Rate
Blacklist - Black List
Blind HO - Blind Handover
BCCH - Broadcast Control Channel
BSR - Buffer Status Reports
CAP - CAMEL Application Part
C - RNTI - Cell Radio Network Temporary Identifier
CRH - Cell Reselection Hysteresis
CQI - Channel Quality Indicator
Kc - Cipher Key
CSG - Closed Subscriber Group
CDMA2000 - Code Division Multiple Access 2000
Commercial LCS - Commercial Location Services
CCCH - Common Control Channel
CEPT - Conference Of European Postal And Telecommunications Administrations
CMC - Connection Mobility Control
CC - Convolutional Coding
CN - Core Network
CAMEL - Customized Applications For Mobile Enhanced Logic
CP - Cyclic Prefix
CRC - Cyclic Redundancy Check
DRB - Data Radio Bearer
DTCH - Dedicated Traffic Channel
DRx - Discontinuous Reception
DTx - Discontinuous Transmission
DPC - Downlink Power Control
DL - SCH - Downlink Shared Channel
DR - Dynamic Range
DRA - Dynamic Resource Allocation
DTA - Dynamic Time Alignment
Emergency LCS - Emergency Location Services
ECM - EPS Connection Management
EMM - EPS Mobility Management
EQ - Equalization
EIR - Equipment Identity Register
EVM - Error Vector Magnitude
EEC - Ethernet Equipment Clock
ETSI - European Telecommunications Standards Institute
HSPA+ - Evolved High Speed Packet Access
E - MBMS - Evolved Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service
eNBS - Evolved Network Base Station
eNB - Evolved Node B
EPC - Evolved Packet Cores
ePDG - Evolved Packet Data Gateway
EPS - Evolved Packet System
EPS Bearer - Evolved Packet System Bearer
EPS Bearer Identity - Evolved Packet System Bearer Identity
E - UTRAN - Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
E - UTRA - Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access
EGSM - Extended GSM
FRAND - Fair Reasonable and Non - Discriminatory
FFS - For Further Study
FPC - Forward Power Control
FDD - Frequency Division Duplex
FDMA - Frequency Division Multiple Access
FH - Frequency Hopping
GGSN - Gateway GPRS Support Node
GPRS - General Packet Radio Service
GUP Server - General User Profile Server
GUP - Generic User Profile
GMM - Global Multimedia Mobility
GNSS - Global Navigation Satellite Systems
GSM - Global System For Mobile Communications
gprsSSF - GPRS Service Switching Function
GCR - Group Call Register
GERAN - GSM EDGE Radio Access Network
gsmSSF - GSM Service Switching Function
GBR - Guaranteed Bit Rate
GP - Guard Period
HR - Half Rate
HANDO - Handover
HRPD - High Rate Packet Data
HSDPA - High Speed Downlink Packet Access
HSPA - High Speed Packet Access
HSPD - High Speed Packet Data
HSUPA - High Speed Uplink Packet Access
HE - Home Environment
HLR - Home Location Register
HPLMN - Home Public Land Mobile Network
HSS - Home Subscriber Server
HARQ - Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request
IPR - Intellectual Property Rights
IN - IVR - Intelligent Network Interactive Voice Response System
IN - Triggering - Intelligent Network Triggered Charging
ICIC - Inter - Cell Interference Coordination
Inter - RAT Handover - Inter - Radio Access Technology Handover
IVR - Interactive Voice Response
Internal LCS - Internal Location Services
IMEI - International Mobile Equipment Identifier
IMSI - International Mobile Subscriber Identity
IMT - International Mobile Telephony
IP Address - Internet Protocol Address
IWF - Interworking Function
IMS - IP Multimedia Subsystem
ISUP - ISDN User Part
Lawful Intercept LCS - Lawful Intercept Location Services
LMSI - Local Mobile Station Identity
LA - Location Area
LAC - Location Area Code
LBS - Location Based Services
LM - Location Management
LR - Location Register
LCS Client - Location Services Client
LCS Server - Location Services Server
L_CH - Logical Channel
LTE - Long Term Evolution
LCR - Low Chip Rate
MIB - Master Information Block
MBR - Maximum Bit Rate
MOP - Maximum Output Power
MPR - Maximum Power Reduction
MSAP - MCH Subframe Allocation Pattern
MGCF - Media Gateway Control Function
MAHO - Mobile Assisted Handoff
MCC - Mobile Country Code
ME - Mobile Equipment
MME - Mobile Management Entity
MNC - Mobile Network Code
MRI - Mobile Reported Interference
MSRN - Mobile Station Roaming Number
MSISDN - Mobile Subscriber ISDN
MSC - Mobile Switching Center
MSC Area - Mobile Switching Center Area
MTSMS - Mobile Terminated Short Message Service
MVNO - Mobile Virtual Network Operator
MVPN - Mobile Virtual Private Network
MM - Mobility Management
MCS - Modulation and Coding Scheme
MCE - Multi - Cell/Multicast Coordination Entity
Multifunction SIM - Multi - Function Subscriber Identity Module Card
MCH - Multicast Channel
MCCH - Multicast Control Channel
MTCH - Multicast Traffic Channel
MC - Multichannel Carrier
MTCH - Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service Traffic Channel
MBMS - Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services
MBMS Session - Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services Session
MBSFN - Multimedia Broadcast Service Multicast Single Frequency Network
MMOG - Multimedia Online Gaming
MRFC - Multimedia Resource Function Controller
MRFP - Multimedia Resource Function Processor
MIMO - Multiple Input Multiple Output
MU - MIMO - Multiple User MIMO
NDC - National Destination Code
NACK - Negative Acknowledgement
NCL - Neighbor Cell List
NACC - Network Assisted Cell Change
NI - Network Interface
NSS - Network Switching Subsystem
NTU - Network Termination Unit
NGMN - Next Generation Mobile Networks
NAS - Non - Access Stratum
OTS - One Tunnel Solution
OCS - Online Charging System
OFDM - Optical Frequency Division Multiplexing
OFDMA - Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access
PDCP - Packet Data Convergence Protocol
PDCP SN - Packet Data Convergence Protocol Sequence Number
P - GW - Packet Data Network Gateway
PDP Context - Packet Data Protocol Context
P - GW - Packet Gateway
PRACH - Packet Random Access Channel
PSC - Packet Scheduling
PCCH - Paging Control Channel
P - RNTI - Paging Radio Network Temporary Identifier
PAPR - Peak to Average Power Ratio
PCS - Personal Communication Services
PCMCIA - Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
PDA - Personal Digital Assistant
PN - Personal Network
PBCH - Physical Broadcast Channel
PhCH - Physical Channel
PCFICH - Physical Control Format Indicator Channel
PDCCH - Physical Downlink Control Channel
PDSCH - Physical Downlink Shared Channel
PHICH - Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel
PHY - Physical Layer
PMCH - Physical Multicast Channel
PRACH - Physical Random Access Channel
PRB - Physical Resource Block
PUCCH - Physical Uplink Control Channel
PUSCH - Physical Uplink Shared Channel
PCEF - Policy and Charging Enforcement Function
PCEP - Policy and Charging Enforcement Point
PCRF - Policy Control and Charging Function
PSD - Power Spectral Density
PBR - Prioritized Bit Rate
PDU - Protocol Data Unit
PLMN - Public Land Mobile Network
PLMN Code - Public Land Mobile Network Code
PPDN - Public Packet Data Network
PTT - Push To Talk
QPP - Quadratic Permutation Polynomial
QPSK - Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
QCI - Quality Class Identifier
QoS Profile - Quality of Service Profile
RAT - Radio Access Technology
RAT Handover - Radio Access Technology Handover
RB - Radio Bearer
RBC - Radio Bearer Control
RBG - Radio Bearer Group
Um - Radio Interface
RLC - AM - Radio Link Control Acknowledged Mode
RLC - UM - Radio Link Control Unacknowledged Mode
RNC Area - Radio Network Controller Area
RNL - Radio Network Layer
RNS - Radio Network System
RNTI - Radio Network Temporary Identifier
RRM - Radio Resource Management
RAB - Random Access Burst
RACH - Random Access Channel
RA - RNTI - Random Access Radio Network Temporary Identifier
RSSI - Received Signal Strength Indicator
RPOA - Recognized Private Operating Agency
RSRP - Reference Symbol Received Power
RPE - LTP - Regular Pulse Excitation - Long Term Prediction
RET - Remote Electrical Tilting
RAF - Repository Access Function
RF Power Classes - RF Power Classification
RPLMN - Roaming Public Land Mobile Network
ROHC - Robust Header Compression
RA - Routing Area
S - TMSI - S - Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity
S1 - AP - S1 Application Protocol
S1 - MME - S1 Interface Mobile Management Entity
S1 - U - S1 Interface User Plane
SR - Scheduling Request
SU - Scheduling Unit
SAP - Service Access Point
SDF - Service Data Flow
SDU - Service Data Unit
SOA - Service Oriented Architecture
S - GW - Serving Gateway
SGSN - Serving General Packet Radio Service Support Node
SGSN Area - Serving General Packet Radio Service Support Node Area
Shared PLMN - Shared Public Land Mobile Network
SSD - Shared Secret Data
Sharing PLMN - Sharing Public Land Mobile Network
SMS - Short Message Service
SG - Signaling Gateway
SRB - Signaling Radio Bearer
SRES - Signed Response
SID - Silence Insertion Description
SC - FDMA - Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access
SU - MIMO - Single User MIMO
SMS - GMSC - SMS Gateway Mobile Switching Center
SMS - IWMSC - SMS Interworking Mobile Switching Center
Source eNB - Source Evolved Node B
Subframe - Sub - Frame
SIM - Subscriber Identity Module
SPID - Subscriber Profile Identifier
Sync Protocol - Synchronization Protocol
SAE - System Architecture Evolution
SC - RNTI - System Change Radio Network Temporary Identifier
SFN - System Frame Number
SI - System Information
SIB - System Information Block
SI - 1 - System Information Block Type 1
S1 - RNTI - System Information Change - Radio Network Temporary Identifier
SI - M - System Information Master
SI - RNTI - System Information Radio Network Temporary Identifier
TB - Tail Bits
Target eNB - Target Evolved Node B
TDD - Time Division Duplex
TDMA - Time Division Multiple Access
TDM - Time Division Multiplexing
Timeslot - Time Slot
Timestamp - Time Stamp
TA - Timing Advance
TA - Tracking Area
TAC - Tracking Area Code
TAI - Tracking Area Identity
TCH - Traffic Channel
TFT - Traffic Flow Template
TA - Transfer Adapter
TAP - Transferred Account Procedures
TCP - Transmission Control Protocol
TCP/IP - Transmission Control Protocol And Internet Protocol
TTI - Transmission Time Interval
TM - Transparent Mode
TA - Transport Address
TB - Transport Block
TNL - Transport Network Layer
TAC - Type Allocation Code
UMB - Ultra Mobile Broadband
UMTS LTE - UMTS Long Term Evolution
UTRAN - UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
UM - Unacknowledged Mode
UTRA - Universal Terrestrial Radio Access
UL - SCH - Uplink Shared Channel
UDP - User Datagram Protocol
UE - User Equipment
UE Assisted Handover - User Equipment Assisted Handover
UE Class - User Equipment Class
UE Context - User Equipment Context
UPE - User Plane Entity
Virtual MIMO - Virtual Multiple Input Multiple Output
VRB - Virtual Resource Block
VLR - Visitor Location Register
VLR Area - Visitor Location Register Area
VAD - Voice Activity Detection
VBS - Voice Broadcast Service
VCC - Voice Call Continuity
VGCS - Voice Group Call Service
WCDMA - Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
WTLS - Wireless Transport Layer Security
WAG - WLAN Access Gateway

About the Author

Mr. Lawrence Harte is a communications expert with over 29 years technical and business experience. As of 2008, he has authored over 100 books and is an inventor of several communication patents. His many degrees and certificates include an Executive MBA from Wake Forest University and a BSET from the University of the State of New York.

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