Click to enlargeWireless Systems<a name="top">

Cellular, 3G, LMR, Mobile Data, Paging, Satellite, Broadcast, and WLAN

Authors: Lawrence Harte, David Bowler, Avi Ofrane, Ben Levitan
Copyright: 2004
Number of Pages: 536
Number of Diagrams: 189

Printed or Electronic Version (20.5MB) Available - Electronic Version has Color Diagrams

This book covers the different types of wireless industries, their regulation, the wireless technologies they use, and what services they can provide. An overview of telecom voice, data, and multimedia applications is provided along with the fundamentals of wireless technologies.

Analog and digital mobile telephone systems are covered including analog cellular (1G), digital cellular (2G), packet based cellular (2.5G), and wideband cellular (3G) communication systems. Private land mobile radio (PLMR) dispatch and two-way radio systems are explained as well as how they are changing to advanced digital communication systems. Mobile data basics are provided along with the available types of packet and circuit switched data systems. One-way and two-way paging systems are described and how they are evolving into interactive information services. The types of satellite systems and their characteristics are also covered.

Point to point microwave, wireless cable, and broadband wireless fixed wireless systems are described. The fundamentals of analog and digital radio and television broadcast systems are provided. The fundamentals of residential cordless, public cordless and WPBX telephone systems covered. WLAN basics are provided including the different versions of 802.11. Short-range Bluetooth wireless technology and profiles are explained. Billing and customer care systems and their processes are described more....

Sample Diagrams

There are 189 explanatory diagrams in this book

3G Wireless System

This diagram shows a 3rd generation broadband wireless system. This system uses two 5 MHz wide radio channels to provide for simultaneous (duplex) transmission between the end-user and other telecommunication networks. There are different channels used for end- user to the system (called the "uplink") and from the system to the end-user (called the "downlink"). This diagram shows that 3G networks interconnect with the public switched telephone network and the Internet. While the radio channel is divided into separate codes, different protocols are used on the radio channels to give high priority for voice information and high-integrity to the transmission of data information.

802.11B Radio System

This diagram shows the basic radio size used in the 802.11b system. This example shows that the radio channel in the 802.11b system is 25 MHz wide and that the center frequency of the radio channel can be assigned to different points (channels) in the 96 MHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) unlicensed frequency band. This example shows that there can be up to 3 non-interfering (non-overlapping) 802.11b radio channels operating in the same ISM frequency band.

Trunked Radio

This figure shows a typical trunked SMR system. In this example, there are several available radio channels. Mobile radios that operate in this system that wish to communicate may search for an available radio channel by looking for identification tones. Optionally, some trunked radio systems use dedicated radio channels to coordinate access to radio channels.

Table of Contents


REGULATION OF WIRELESS * Licensed Frequencies * Unlicensed Frequencies * CATEGORIZING WIRELESS SERVICES * Broadcast Radio * Two-way Radio Communications * Point-to-Point Services * WIRELESS COMMUNICATION APPLICATIONS * Voice * Data * Video


MOBILE TELEPHONE SERVICE * Analog Cellular (First Generation) * Digital Cellular and PCS (Second Generation) * Wideband Cellular (3rd Generation) * Aircraft Telephones * Mobile Satellite * Wireless Office * Cordless * LAND MOBILE RADIO * Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR) * Enhanced SMR (ESMR) * PAGING * One-Way Paging * Two-Way Paging * WIRELESS DATA * FIXED WIRELESS * Wireless Cable * Wireless Local Loop (WLL) * REMOTE CONTROL * POINT TO POINT COMMUNICATIONS LINKS * BROADCAST RADIO * AM and FM Audio Broadcasting * Sub Carrier Broadcasting * Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) * BROADCAST TELEVISION * Standard NTSC * High Definition Television (HDTV) * WIRELESS LOCAL AREA NETWORK (WLAN) * WIRELESS PERSONAL AREA NETWORK (WPAN) * Bluetooth


DIVIDING THE RADIO FREQUENCY (RF) SPECTRUM * Licensing * Frequency Allocation Charting * RF Channels and Bandwidth * Radio Propagation * SIGNAL TYPES * Analog Signals * Digital Signals * Digitization of an Analog Signal * MODULATION OF THE RADIO WAVES * Amplitude Modulation (AM) * Frequency Modulation (FM) * Phase Modulation (PM) * RADIO ACCESS TECHNOLOGIES * Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) * Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) * Spread Spectrum (FHMA and CDMA) * Duplex Operation * ANALOG (AUDIO) SIGNAL PROCESSING * DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING * RADIO SIGNAL PROCESSING * ANTENNAS * Antenna Gain * RADIO TRANSMITTERS AND RECEIVERS * WIRELESS NETWORK INFRASTRUCTURE * Radio Towers * Switching Facilities * Interconnection to Other Networks * Customer Databases * PUBLIC SWITCHED TELEPHONE NETWORK (PSTN) * PUBLIC DATA NETWORK (PDN) * Internet


MARKET GROWTH * TECHNOLOGIES * Cellular Frequency Reuse * Analog Cellular * Digital Mobile Radio * Packet Based Digital Cellular (2.5 Generation) * Wideband Digital Cellular (3rd Generation) * ANALOG SYSTEMS (1ST GENERATION) * Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) * Total Access Communication System (TACS) * Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) * Narrowband AMPS (NAMPS) * Japanese Mobile Cellular System (MCS) * CNET * MATS-E * DIGITAL CELLULAR SYSTEMS (2ND GENERATION) * Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) * North American TDMA (IS-136 TDMA) * Extended TDMA (E-TDMA)TM * Code Division Multiple Access (IS-95 CDMA) * UPGRADED DIGITAL CELLULAR SYSTEM (2 1/2 GENERATION) * General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) * Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE) * Evolution Data Only (EVDO) * Evolution Data and Voice (EVDV) * WIDEBAND DIGITAL CELLULAR SYSTEMS (3RD GENERATION) * Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) * Code Division Multiple Access 2000 (CDMA2000) * SERVICES * Voice * Messaging * Data * FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS * Software Defined Radios * Spatial Division Multiple Access (SDMA)


Private Land Mobile Radio (PLMR) * Specialized Mobile Radio (SMR) * Enhanced Specialized Mobile Radio (ESMR) * MARKET GROWTH * TECHNOLOGIES * Two-way Radio * Trunked Radio * Analog * Digital * COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS AND STANDARDS * General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) * Logic Trunked Radio (LTR) * Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (iDEN)(r) * Enhanced Digital Access Communication System (EDACS) * Ministry of Posts and Telegraph 1327 (MPT1327) * Passport * APCO Project 25 * Terrestrial Trunked Mobile Radio (TETRA) * SERVICES * Voice * Dispatch * Paging and Messaging * Data * FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS * Packet Data * Dual Technology Mobile Radios

Chapter 6 - MOBILE DATA

MARKET DECLINE AND GROWTH * Overall Market Growth * TECHNOLOGIES * Circuit Switched Data * Packet Switched Data * Sub-Band Data Transmission * Shared Voice and Data * Wireless Modem Protocols * Modem Pools * Internet Protocols * Instant Messaging * Distributed Data Collection and Distribution * iMode * Wireless Access Protocol (WAP) * WIRELESS DATA APPLICATIONS * Credit Card Devices * Parking Meters * Vending * Environmental Monitoring * Energy Management * Dispatch * Utility Monitoring * Wireless E-mail * Wireless Internet * Mobile Computing * Advertising * Vehicle Monitoring Services * COMMERCIAL WIRELESS DATA SYSTEMS * Data over Analog Cellular * Data Over Digital Cellular and PCS * AMERICAN MOBILE'S ARDIS NETWORK * Mobitex/RAM * Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) * Cellemetrysm * Aeris Microburst * CellNet * Teletrac * Ricochet * FM Sub-band Signaling * SERVICES * Circuit Switched Data * Packet Data * Wireless Messaging * FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS * High Speed Packet Data * Multi-Media * Satellite Data

Chapter 7 - PAGING

INTRODUCTION * One-Way Paging * Two-Way Paging * Narrowband PCS * MARKET GROWTH * TECHNOLOGIES * Interactive Voice Response (IVR) * Localized Paging * Queuing * Pagers with Synthesizers * Simulcast * Paging Protocols * System Capacity * SYSTEMS * Tone Signaling * FLEXTM * ReFLEX * InFLEXion * POCSAG * GOLAY Sequential Coding * European Radio MEssaging Systems (ERMES) * Radio Broadcast Data System (RBDS) * Satellite * SERVICES * Tone Paging * Numeric Paging * Alpha or Message Paging * Voice Paging * Two-Way Paging * FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS * Broadcast Services * Broadband Short Message Service (SMS)


Satellite Segment * Ground Segment * Subscriber Equipment Segment * Broadcast * Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSAT) * Mobile Satellite Systems * MARKET GROWTH * TECHNOLOGIES * Geosynchronous Earth Orbiting (GEO) Satellites * Medium Earth Orbiting (MEO) Satellites * Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) Satellites * Global Positioning System (GPS) * Spatial Division Multiple Access (SDMA) * Multiple Access Technologies * NEW SYSTEMS * MOBILE SATELLITE SYSTEMS * INMARSAT * OMNITRACS * American Mobile Satellite Corporation (AMSC) * COMSAT * ORBCOMM * Iridium * Globalstar * ICO Global Communication * Teledesic * SERVICES * Transponder Leasing * Dispatch * Voice * Data * FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS * High Speed Internet * Airborne Communication Platforms


INTRODUCTION * Wireless Local Loop * High Speed Wireless Bypass * Wireless Cable * MARKET GROWTH * TECHNOLOGIES * Digital Video Compression * Hybrid Systems * Number Portability * Interference Control * Infrared Communications * SYSTEMS * Personal Access Communication System (PACS) * Basic Exchange Telephone Radio Service (BETRS) * Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) Microwave * Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service (MMDS) * Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS) * SERVICES * Local Telephony Services * Long Distance Telephone Services * Centrex Services. * Data Services * Internet Access * Video * FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS * Multiple Services


INTRODUCTION * Television * Audio Broadcasting ("Radio") * MARKET GROWTH * TECHNOLOGIES * Analog Video * Digital Video * AM Radio * FM Radio * Digital Radio * SYSTEMS * National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) * Phase Alternating Line (PAL) * High Definition Television (HDTV) * AM Broadcast * FM Broadcast * Digital Audio Broadcast (DAB) * SERVICES * Television * Audio * Supplementary Services * FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS * High Definition Television Digital Services * Digital Audio Radio Services (DARS)


Wireless Office Telephone System (WOTS) * Cordless Telephone Systems * Combined Cordless and Cellular * MARKET GROWTH * TECHNOLOGIES * Independent Radio Channel Coordination * Multi-Mode * Digital Transmission * COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS * Tele-GoTM * Cordless Telephony 2nd Generation * Personal Handiphone System (PHS) * IS-94 * SpectraLink * CompanionTM * Digital European Cordless Telephone (DECT) * SERVICES * Voice * Data * PBX Functionality * Public Area Mobility * FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS * Internet Access


MARKET GROWTH * IEEE Wireless LAN * TECHNOLOGIES * Ethernet * Spread Spectrum * Information Security * Access Control * COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS * 802.11A * 802.11B * 802.11G * HyperLAN * FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS * Ultra Wide Band (UWB) * Software Defined Radios


MARKET GROWTH * TECHNOLOGIES * Service Discovery Protocol (SDP) * Application Protocols * COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS * HomeRF * Bluetooth * FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS * Higher Data-Rates * Rapid Acquisition * Interference Avoidance


INTRODUCTION TO BILLING * Types of Services * Standard Billing Process * Real Time Billing * Multilingual Support * Multiple Currencies * Inter-carrier Settlements * BILLING PROCESS * Event Sources and Tracking * Mediation Devices * Call Detail Records (CDRs) * MAJOR BILLING FUNCTIONS * Front End: Call Processing * Back End: Cycle Billing * Clearinghouse * Invoices * Management Reporting * Invoicing * Receiving Payments * Posting to the Financial System * CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT (CRM) * Account Activation * Account Management * BILLING SYSTEM COSTS * Hardware and Software * Invoice Processing (Batching) * Bill Printing and Mailing * Call Center * Collections * BILLING STANDARDS * Exchange Message Record (EMR) * Internet Protocol Detail Record (IPDR) * Automatic Message Accounting (AMA) * Carrier Interexchange Billing Exchange Record (CIBER) * Transferred Accounting Process (TAP) * Network Data Management - Usage (NDM-U) * Data Message Handler (DMH) Interim Standard 124 (IS-124) * THE FUTURE OF BILLING AND CUSTOMER CARE * Applications Service Providers (ASPs) * Local Number Portability (LNP) * Customer Self-Care


About the Authors

Mr. Lawrence Harte has over 29 years of experience in the electronics industry including company leadership, product management, development, marketing, design, and testing of telecommunications (cellular), radar, and microwave systems. He has been issued patents relating to cellular technology. He has authored over 75 articles on related subjects and has been a speaker and panel moderator at industry trade events. Mr. Harte earned executive MBA at Wake Forest University and received his Bachelors degree from University of the State of New York. During the TDMA digital cellular standard development process, Mr. Harte served as an editor and voting company representative for the Telecommunications Industries Association (TIA) TR45.3, digital cellular standards committee. As of 2003, Mr. Harte had authored and co-authored over 20 books relating to telecommunications technology. He has served as a consultant and expert witness for leading companies including Ericsson, Siemens, VLSI, AMD, Casio, Samsung, Sony, ATT, Nokia, Hughes and many others.

Mr. David Bowler is an independent telecommunications training consultant. He has almost 20 years experience in designing and delivering training in the areas of wireless networks and related technologies, including CDMA, TDMA, GSM and 3G systems. He also has expertise in Wireless Local Loop and microwave radio systems and has designed and delivered a range of training courses on SS7 and other network signaling protocols. Mr. Bowler has worked for a number of telecommunications operators including Cable and Wireless and Mercury Communications and also for Wray Castle a telecommunications training company where he was responsible for the design of training programmes for delivery on a global basis. Mr. Bowler was educated in the United Kingdom and holds a series of specialized maritime electronic engineering certificates.

Avi Ofrane founded the Billing College in 1996, a training company addressing the converging market trends associated with telecommunications Billing and Customer Care. The Billing College is a spin-off company of Mr. Ofrane's technology consulting company, Jupiter Data, Inc., established in 1990. Mr. Ofrane began his career in 1977 as an analyst with the IBM Corporation and has since 1982 concentrated exclusively on the telecommunications industry, in which he is now a recognized expert in Billing and Customer Care. Throughout his extensive career, Mr. Ofrane has been involved in all aspects of the industry, from strategic planning and executive management to vendor evaluation and project implementation. Mr. Ofrane lectures extensively on Billing and Customer Care issues, strategies, methodologies, and practices. He is a frequently requested speaker at major North American and European conferences. Mr. Ofrane is currently President and CEO of the Billing College, as well as a master instructor of the company's courses. Mr. Ofrane is the co-author of the book "Telecom Made Simple" and has written numerous articles for international trade publications. Mr. Ofrane holds a Bachelor of Science in Computer Science from Pennsylvania State University.

Ben Levitan, is an engineer and an expert on new and developing wireless standards for Satellite and Cellular Systems including ANSI-41, GSM, and 3rd Generation systems. Mr. Ben Levitan is an active participant for the US and international development of ANSI-41, GSM, 802.11, All-IP (3G Standards), Interstandard Roaming and FCC and US Government mandated features and requirements. Mr. Levitan has represented COMSAT, Intelsat and Aeronautical Radio, Inc. in the development of satellite standards and was a member of the United States Delegations to the United Nation's International Telecommunications Union conferences for worldwide standardization of telecommunications for eight years. Mr. Levitan is active in the development of the design of standards for the first, second and third generation of standards for wireless and cellular system, representing the engineering and business interests of GTE, Verizon International, TSI and other clients at the industry forums for development of cellular systems standards. Mr. Levitan expertise includes international roaming for cellular systems and government and FCC mandated features such as the new required Wiretap standards (CALEA), Local Number Portability and 911 emergency standards for the cellular industry. Mr. Levitan is a frequent speaker at wireless industry forums and conferences.

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This book provides a big picture of the key wireless industries, what systems and technologies they use, how they operate, their market trends, and what services they provide.

If you are involved or you are getting involved in the wireless industry, your life is changing. The growth and decline of wireless industries can be well over 40% per year and it rapidly changes. Some wireless systems that were ?hot technologies? just 10 years ago with billions of dollars in investment with national or global presence are simply gone.

This information covered in this book ranges from the basics to what?s new in wireless. You will learn that each wireless industry has its own unique advantages and limitations, which offer important economic and technical choices for managers, salespeople, technicians, and others involved with wireless telephones and systems. This book provides the background for a good understanding of the major wireless technologies, issues, and options available.

The book starts with a basic introduction to wireless communication. It covers the different types of industries, who controls and regulates them, and provides a basic definition of each of the major wireless technologies. A broad overview of the telecom voice, data, and multimedia applications is provided. You will discover the fundamentals of wireless technologies and their terminology are described along with how the radio frequency spectrum is divided, the basics of radio frequency transmission and modulation, antennas and radio networks.

The different types of analog and digital mobile telephone systems and their evolution are covered. Included is the basic operation, attributes and services for analog cellular (1st generation), digital cellular (2nd generation), packet based cellular (2 generation), and wideband cellular (3rd generation) communication systems. Private land mobile radio (PLMR) dispatch and two-way radio systems are explained along with how they are changing from proprietary analog systems to advanced digital multimedia communication systems.

The basics of mobile data are provided along with the available types of packet and circuit switched data systems and how they operate. Descriptions of paging systems are provided and you will discover how paging systems are evolving from one-way numeric messaging to two-way interactive information services. Important characteristics of satellite systems are covered.

An overview of fixed wireless systems including point to point microwave, wireless cable, and broadband wireless is included. The fundamentals of radio and television broadcast systems are covered along with how they are converting from analog to digital systems and why in just a few years service to existing radios and telephones will stop.

The fundamentals of residential cordless, public cordless and WPBX telephone systems covered. Wireless local area networks (WLANs) basics are provided including the different versions of 802.11. Short-range Bluetooth wireless is explained along with how it is used by accessories such as headsets, keyboards, cameras, and printers. The fundamentals of billing and customer care systems are provided along with these systems collect and process service and usage charges.

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